<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
This document focuses on why and how electronic sources must be cited so that students can avoid plagiarism. Because students now routinely use readily available electronic sources for their papers, they must learn how to properly cite them. You will have more complete coverage of plagiarism issues if you use this document in conjunction with the more general Recognizing and Avoiding Plagiarism, which includes an exercise in how to paraphrase, and The Template for Taking Notes on Research Papers, both of which are found in the Cain Project resources. Do not consider these documents to be legal advice: The author is not an attorney.

Basic information

  • The copyright protections associated with print also govern the use of audio, video, images, and text on the World Wide Web (WWW).
  • If a document is on the WWW, that DOES NOT mean that it is in the public domain and may be used with no restrictions.
  • A document on the WWW may be copyrighted even if it does not explicitly state that it is copyrighted. Assume that a work is copyrighted unless the site explicitly authorizes use.
  • The same copyright protections exist for the author of a work regardless of whether the work is in a database, CD, discussion board, blog, or web page.
  • Cite a visual used in the text at the end of the Figure or Table caption: ( Ozymandias 2005 ) just as you would cite text in a paragraph. If you use only part of a visual or change it, cite it as ( Adapted from Ozymandias 2005 ).
  • Put all electronic citations in your Bibliography or Works Cited.

Tips on using internet resources

  • ALWAYS credit the source of your information.
  • Check to see if the author provides information on how his/her work (e.g., video, audio, graphic, icon, web page) may be used. Make sure to follow the guidelines, if they exist.
  • If possible, ask the owner of the copyright for permission to use the work. Because all authors of a single document have equal copyright protection, it is necessary to get permission from only one. The corresponding author of a paper should be your first choice. Keep a paper copy of your request for permission and of the permission received.
  • If you use one of your own published articles in your thesis, you don’t need permission from the other authors, all of whom have equal copyright rights. Clearly state the source, however, and recognize the contributions of the other authors. Most journals will give you permission to use your published paper in your thesis, but check the contract!
  • If you post a chapter from your unfinished thesis or a paper you plan to submit for publication, it is considered published and copyrighted by the act of placing it on the Internet. A journal then cannot accept it for publication because it has already been published. To avoid this copyright disaster, clearly label the posted material as DRAFT and make certain that it differs from what you later submit as finished thesis or paper for publication.

Guidelines for citing electronic media

Check with the journal, your advisor, or your professor to determine what style is required. The APA style guide and the Chicago Manual of Style are commonly used, but some journals have their own style sheets. If you are submitting for publication outside the U.S., style expectations will differ. Preferred style may differ from field to field, as well. If you have kept accurate and complete notes on what you read, you’ll be able to meet any requirements.

What to include (if available)

  • Name of the author, editor, compiler, or translator of the document or graphic. Last name, First initial. (Make this complete enough so that you can do an electronic search for it. Sometimes last name and first initial are not sufficient, as in “Jones, J.”)
  • Date of document’s publication or last update on the Web site. If the publication date is not known, use n.d. to indicate “no date” (n.d.).
  • Title of the document, graphic, or the Web Site.
  • Publication information--the name of the main Web Site where the document or graphic is posted.
  • Page number range or total number of pages or other sections, if they are numbered.
  • Date accessed and location of the material on that date: Month, day, year; URL.
  • Keep a paper copy to prove the date accessed to protect yourself if it disappears from the Web.
  • If you download an article published as print, you may cite it as a printed source. If you cite an article in an electronic journal, you must cite it as a Web source.

Examples of citation in a bibliography or works cited

Notice that the same basic information is included in the three entries for journal articles, although the styles differ. Choose the style appropriate for what you are writing, and then be consistent within the document. You must follow a style guide.

If the Bibliography is set up numerically rather than alphabetically, as would happen when references are numbered consecutively within a text, the entries would be numbered and the authors’ names would all be first name first, as in [1] Christopher Beattie, Mark Embree, etc .

Beattie, Christopher, Mark Embree, and D. C. Sorensen. Convergence of Polynomial Restart Krylov Methods for Eigenvalue Computation. SIAM Rev. , 47 (2005), pp. 492-515. [Journal style]

Chen, J. Y., A. Kutana, C. P. Collier, and K.P. Giapis. Electrowetting in Carbon Nanotubes. Science 310 , 1480-1483 (2005). [Journal style]

Hacker, Diana. (2006). The Bedford Handbook . Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s. [APA style]

Nicolo, Micah J., Gerald R. Dickens, Christopher J. Hollis, and James C. Zachos. “Multiple early Eocene hyperthermals: Their sedimentary expression on the New Zealand continental margin and in the deep sea,” Geology 35, no. 8 (2007): 699-702. [Chicago style]

Electronic sources

Herbst, Roy S., M.D., PhD., and Scott M. Lippman, M.D. Molecular Signatures of Lung Cancer—Toward Personalized Therapy. New England Journal of Medicine 356 , no. 1 (January 4, 2007): 76-78. Retrieved April 18, 2007 from (External Link)

Ortiz-Barrientos, D. and M. A. F. Noor. Evidence for a One-Allele Assortative Mating Locus.” Science 310, no. 5753 (2005): 1467. Retrieved September 1, 2007 from (External Link)

Provenzo, Eugene F. Jr. “Time Exposure.” Educational Studies 34, no. 2 (2003): 266-67. Retrieved September 11, 2007 from (External Link)

Additional resources

See (External Link) (Gives information about copyright laws.)

Visit (External Link) (Extensive examples of how to cite journal articles in APA format, the form used by many fields.)

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Plagiarism and scientific writing. OpenStax CNX. Nov 16, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10604/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Plagiarism and scientific writing' conversation and receive update notifications?