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Against this backdrop, the Smithsonian Photography Initiative (SPI) was established in 2001. Smithsonian Photographic Initiative: (External Link) . It serves as a central, web-based programming unit designed to stimulate dialogue about the cultural impact ofphotography with new and existing Smithsonian audiences. Organized as a series of integrated programs, the website Click! photography changes everything The Smithsonian Institution explains that “Click! photography changes everything” isa collection of essays and stories by experts who discuss how photography shapes our culture and our lives. [It explores]how photography changes Who We Are , What We Do , What We See , Where We Go , What We Want and What We Remember .” (External Link) . invites the public to consider ways in which photography enables people to see, experience,and interact with the world. Although the Search Images feature of the website presents a relatively small percentage of art, science, culture, and historyimages available in each of the Smithsonian’s units, it does present the only pan-institutional image cross-section. SPI does not provide sales or licensingservices; instead it redirects web visitors via links to the websites of the SI units, which each manage their own images and content. There is no consistentpolicy regarding licensing fees across the units of the Smithsonian Institution, and some work with third-party licensing agencies such as Corbis and ArtResource.

At the same time the Smithsonian Photography Initiative was launched, Smithsonian Images Smithsonian Images: (External Link)_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=content&contentpath=about.html . was created as a pilot web program with the goals of using credit cards for e-commerce and increasing visibility and access to its online digital images. Fees charged for non-commercial use were designated for recovery of distributioncosts rather than to generate profit for the Institution. From its inception, Smithsonian Images has permitted free download of digital images at a non-publication resolution for educational, scholarly and personal use under the terms of “fair use.”

Early in 2007, the Smithsonian Institution’s Digitization Steering Committee issued a report with recommendations about theresources and infrastructure needed to create, manage, provide access to, and use the Institution’s digital assets to effectively meet the needs of real andvirtual visitors. In April 2007, the Smithsonian met with Library of Congress staff to discuss technology infrastructure requirements to support digitizationand various procedural considerations, including intellectual property rights. The Smithsonian Digital Media Use Committee was formed in July 2007 to create anew pan-institutional policy reflecting current technologies and SI’s commitment to providing broad access to digital assets in a manner consistent with itslegal and stewardship responsibilities.

Barriers to making images available free of charge

Although the Smithsonian Institution seeks to increase access for educational and research purposes, it cites the followingreasons for not making images available free of charge for scholarly publishing:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Art museum images in scholarly publishing. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10728/1.1
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