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Scottish chemist Thomas Charles Hope (1766 - 1844).

Barium

Barium minerals were known by alchemists in the early Middle Ages. Stones of the mineral barite found in Bologna, Italy (also known as Bologna stones ), were known to glow after exposure to light. Carl Scheele ( [link] ) identified barite in 1774, but did not isolate barium. Barium was first isolated as Ba 2+ in solution by Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ) in 1808. The oxidized barium was at first called barote , by Guyton de Morveau, ( [link] ) which was changed by Antoine Lavoisier ( [link] ) to baryta , from which barium was derived to describe the metal.

German-Swedish pharmaceutical chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742 - 1786). Author Isaac Asimov has called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit.
French chemist and politician Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737 - 1816) changed his name to Guyton-Morveau after the French Revolution.
French chemist and biologist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743 – 1794).

Radium

Radium was discovered by Marie Curie ( [link] ) and her husband Pierre ( [link] ) in 1898 while studying pitchblende. After removing uranium they found that the remaining material was still radioactive. They then separated out a radioactive mixture consisting mostly of barium and an element that gave crimson spectral lines that had never been documented before. In 1910, radium was isolated as a pure metal by Curie and André-Louis Debierne ( [link] ) through the electrolysis of a radium chloride solution by using a mercury cathode and distilling in an atmosphere of hydrogen gas.

Marie Curie (1867-1934). Copyright Academy of Achievement.
French physicist Pierre Curie (1859 – 1906).
French chemist André-Louis Debierne (1874 - 1949).

Abundance

The abundance of the alkaline earth elements is given in [link] . Beryllium is rare, but found in the mineral beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ). While magnesium is widespread within the Earth's crust, commercial sources tend to be from sea water as well as the carbonate minerals magnesite (MgCO 3 ) and dolomite [(Ca,Mg)CO 3 ]. Calcium is also commonly found as the carbonate, however, strontium and barium are present as the sulphates celestine (SrSO 4 ) and barites (BaSO 4 ), respectively.

Abundance of alkaline earth elements.
Element Terrestrial abundance (ppm)
Be 2.6 (Earth’s crust), 6 (soil), 2 x 10 -7 (sea water)
Mg 23,000 (Earth’s crust), 10,000 (soil), 1,200 (sea water)
Ca 41,000 (Earth’s crust), 20,000 (soil), 400 (sea water)
Sr 370 (Earth’s crust), 200 (soil), 8 (sea water)
Ba 500 (Earth’s crust), 500 (soil), 0.001 (sea water)
Ra 6 x 10 -7 (Earth’s crust), 8 x 10 -7 (soil), 1 x 10 -10 (sea water)

Calcium is a key element for living. Not only is it present as the skeletal material for shell fish and crabs (CaCO 3 ) its phosphate derivative, hydroxyapetite [Ca 5 (OH)(PO 4 ) 3 ] is the structural material of bones and teeth. Calcium is also present in soft tissue at a level of ca. 22g/kg. Calcium is a vital metal for the following:

  • Links large molecules together.
  • Used in the activation of muscles
  • Used in enzyme activation by stabilization of particular conformations of proteins to be acted upon by enzymes.

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
felecia
_½+⅔-¾
felecia
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
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Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
Abdullahi
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Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
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Mark
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
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Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
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Seidu
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Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
Mahar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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