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Scottish chemist Thomas Charles Hope (1766 - 1844).

Barium

Barium minerals were known by alchemists in the early Middle Ages. Stones of the mineral barite found in Bologna, Italy (also known as Bologna stones ), were known to glow after exposure to light. Carl Scheele ( [link] ) identified barite in 1774, but did not isolate barium. Barium was first isolated as Ba 2+ in solution by Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ) in 1808. The oxidized barium was at first called barote , by Guyton de Morveau, ( [link] ) which was changed by Antoine Lavoisier ( [link] ) to baryta , from which barium was derived to describe the metal.

German-Swedish pharmaceutical chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742 - 1786). Author Isaac Asimov has called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit.
French chemist and politician Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737 - 1816) changed his name to Guyton-Morveau after the French Revolution.
French chemist and biologist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743 – 1794).

Radium

Radium was discovered by Marie Curie ( [link] ) and her husband Pierre ( [link] ) in 1898 while studying pitchblende. After removing uranium they found that the remaining material was still radioactive. They then separated out a radioactive mixture consisting mostly of barium and an element that gave crimson spectral lines that had never been documented before. In 1910, radium was isolated as a pure metal by Curie and André-Louis Debierne ( [link] ) through the electrolysis of a radium chloride solution by using a mercury cathode and distilling in an atmosphere of hydrogen gas.

Marie Curie (1867-1934). Copyright Academy of Achievement.
French physicist Pierre Curie (1859 – 1906).
French chemist André-Louis Debierne (1874 - 1949).

Abundance

The abundance of the alkaline earth elements is given in [link] . Beryllium is rare, but found in the mineral beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ). While magnesium is widespread within the Earth's crust, commercial sources tend to be from sea water as well as the carbonate minerals magnesite (MgCO 3 ) and dolomite [(Ca,Mg)CO 3 ]. Calcium is also commonly found as the carbonate, however, strontium and barium are present as the sulphates celestine (SrSO 4 ) and barites (BaSO 4 ), respectively.

Abundance of alkaline earth elements.
Element Terrestrial abundance (ppm)
Be 2.6 (Earth’s crust), 6 (soil), 2 x 10 -7 (sea water)
Mg 23,000 (Earth’s crust), 10,000 (soil), 1,200 (sea water)
Ca 41,000 (Earth’s crust), 20,000 (soil), 400 (sea water)
Sr 370 (Earth’s crust), 200 (soil), 8 (sea water)
Ba 500 (Earth’s crust), 500 (soil), 0.001 (sea water)
Ra 6 x 10 -7 (Earth’s crust), 8 x 10 -7 (soil), 1 x 10 -10 (sea water)

Calcium is a key element for living. Not only is it present as the skeletal material for shell fish and crabs (CaCO 3 ) its phosphate derivative, hydroxyapetite [Ca 5 (OH)(PO 4 ) 3 ] is the structural material of bones and teeth. Calcium is also present in soft tissue at a level of ca. 22g/kg. Calcium is a vital metal for the following:

  • Links large molecules together.
  • Used in the activation of muscles
  • Used in enzyme activation by stabilization of particular conformations of proteins to be acted upon by enzymes.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
Mahar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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