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This module builds the tools necessary for the frequency analysis of brain waves as recording by an electroencephalograph. We proceed from the Pythagorean Theorem to sine waves, the trapezoid rule and finally to Fourier decomposition.

Table of contents

0. Background

1. Sine and Cosine Waves

2. Trapezoid Rule for estimating area

3. Fourier Method for decomposing signals

4. Spectrogram application to analyzing brain waves

Background: brain waves and the eeg

Signals are sent through the brain using both chemical and electrical means. The synchronized electrical activity of individual neurons adds up to something big enough to detect on from outside the head. To measure it, we use a set of electrical nodes called an electroencephalogam (EEG). The measured activity reflects different states of the brain which in turn tell us something about the mindset of the person. Our goal in this module is to decompose an EEG signal into its different frequencies, which is intuitively the most meaningful piece of information.

Sine and cosine waves

Brainwaves have complex shapes that are not easily interpreted. In order to study these waves, we need to develop some mathematical tools that will tell us about different waves. To outline, we begin by talking about pure (sine or cosine) waves, then move to the trapezoid rule for estimating area under a curve. Next, we develop Fourier analysis for picking out the frequencies in a jumbled signal, and finally use these tools to create spectrograms, which allow us to track different frequencies over time.

Sine waves

The sine wave is a mathematical function. It describes many physical phenomena, including sound waves and oscillation. It looks just like a wave. MATLAB uses the sin function to make sin waves. For example, to make Figure 1, we use the code:

>>t = 0:.01:1;>>y = sin(2*pi*t);>>plot(t,y);

The sine wave is defined by the lengths and angles of a triangle. Run sincirc.m (copied below) to see how the sine and cosine values relate to the angle ϕ of the triangle. As you can see, if ϕ is the angle of a right triangle with hypotenuse 1 (illustrated by the circle) , sin ( ϕ ) is the height of the triangle and cos ( ϕ ) is the base of it:

A sin wave

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The relation of sine and cosine to a triangle and unit circle

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Two illustrations of the sine function.
% sincirc.m %% sincirc.m illustrates the relation of the sin and cosine waves to the circle. %define parametersNturns = 2; steps_per_turn = 9;step_inc = 2*pi/steps_per_turn; %set up points for circlecirc_x = cos(0:.01:2*pi); circ_y = sin(0:.01:2*pi);axis equal %loop over triangles with different anglesfor n = 1:Nturns * steps_per_turn; phi = n * step_inc + pi/4;%plot circle, then triangle, then text plot(circ_x, circ_y);axis([-1 1 -1 1] * 1.5);line([0 cos(phi)], [0 sin(phi)]); line([1 1]* cos(phi), [0 sin(phi)]);line([0 cos(phi)], [0 0]); text(cos(phi)/2 , -.1*sign(sin(phi)),'cos(\varphi)')text(cos(phi) + .1*(sign(cos(phi))-.5), sin(phi)/2, 'sin(\varphi)') text(cos(phi)*.2, sin(phi)*.1,'\varphi');pause(.5); end

Characteristics of the sine wave

The sin wave has three primary characteristics:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The art of the pfug. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10523/1.34
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