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Chemical stoichiometry and gases

Chemical stoichiometry describes the quantitative relationships between reactants and products in chemical reactions.

We have previously measured quantities of reactants and products using masses for solids and volumes in conjunction with the molarity for solutions; now we can also use gas volumes to indicate quantities. If we know the volume, pressure, and temperature of a gas, we can use the ideal gas equation to calculate how many moles of the gas are present. If we know how many moles of a gas are involved, we can calculate the volume of a gas at any temperature and pressure.

Avogadro’s law revisited

Sometimes we can take advantage of a simplifying feature of the stoichiometry of gases that solids and solutions do not exhibit: All gases that show ideal behavior contain the same number of molecules in the same volume (at the same temperature and pressure). Thus, the ratios of volumes of gases involved in a chemical reaction are given by the coefficients in the equation for the reaction, provided that the gas volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure.

We can extend Avogadro’s law (that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas) to chemical reactions with gases: Gases combine, or react, in definite and simple proportions by volume, provided that all gas volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure. For example, since nitrogen and hydrogen gases react to produce ammonia gas according to N 2 ( g ) + 3 H 2 ( g ) 2 NH 3 ( g ) , a given volume of nitrogen gas reacts with three times that volume of hydrogen gas to produce two times that volume of ammonia gas, if pressure and temperature remain constant.

The explanation for this is illustrated in [link] . According to Avogadro’s law, equal volumes of gaseous N 2 , H 2 , and NH 3 , at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules. Because one molecule of N 2 reacts with three molecules of H 2 to produce two molecules of NH 3 , the volume of H 2 required is three times the volume of N 2 , and the volume of NH 3 produced is two times the volume of N 2 .

This diagram provided models the chemical reaction written with formulas across the bottom of the figure. The reaction is written; N subscript 2 plus 3 H subscript 2 followed by an arrow pointing right to N H subscript 3. Just above the formulas, space-filling models are provided. Above N H subscript 2, two blue spheres are bonded. Above 3 H subscript 2, three pairs of two slightly smaller white spheres are bonded. Above N H subscript 3, two molecules are shown composed each of a central blue sphere to which three slightly smaller white spheres are bonded. Across the top of the diagram, the reaction is illustrated with balloons. To the left is a light blue balloon which is labeled “N subscript 2”. This balloon contains a single space-filling model composed of two bonded blue spheres. This balloon is followed by a plus sign, then three grey balloons which are each labeled “H subscript 2.” Each of these balloons similarly contain a single space-filling model composed of two bonded white spheres. These white spheres are slightly smaller than the blue spheres. An arrow follows which points right to two light green balloons which are each labeled “N H subscript 3.” Each light green balloon contains a space-filling model composed of a single central blue sphere to which three slightly smaller white spheres are bonded.
One volume of N 2 combines with three volumes of H 2 to form two volumes of NH 3 .

Reaction of gases

Propane, C 3 H 8 ( g ), is used in gas grills to provide the heat for cooking. What volume of O 2 ( g ) measured at 25 °C and 760 torr is required to react with 2.7 L of propane measured under the same conditions of temperature and pressure? Assume that the propane undergoes complete combustion.

Solution

The ratio of the volumes of C 3 H 8 and O 2 will be equal to the ratio of their coefficients in the balanced equation for the reaction:

C 3 H 8 ( g ) + 5 O 2 ( g ) 3 CO 2 ( g ) + 4 H 2 O ( l ) 1 volume + 5 volumes 3 volumes + 4 volumes

From the equation, we see that one volume of C 3 H 8 will react with five volumes of O 2 :

2.7 L C 3 H 8 × 5 L O 2 1 L C 3 H 8 = 13.5 L O 2

A volume of 13.5 L of O 2 will be required to react with 2.7 L of C 3 H 8 .

Check your learning

An acetylene tank for an oxyacetylene welding torch provides 9340 L of acetylene gas, C 2 H 2 , at 0 °C and 1 atm. How many tanks of oxygen, each providing 7.00 × 10 3 L of O 2 at 0 °C and 1 atm, will be required to burn the acetylene?

2 C 2 H 2 + 5 O 2 4 CO 2 + 2 H 2 O

Answer:

3.34 tanks (2.34 × 10 4 L)

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Questions & Answers

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I think they are molecules that comprise only of hydrogen and carbon atoms ( they are organic if I'm not mistaken)
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molecules are slightly packed and they follow the shape of a container.
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Isaiah Reply
is the comparison of an unknown quantity with a fixed quantity of the same kind
Sahada
How does an element differ from a compound? How are they similar?
Adeola Reply
an element is an indivisible particles that can take part in a reaction and consist of smaller or tiny particles i.e proton, neutrons and electron while a compound is when two or more element chemically combine together. They are similar when they are homogeneous compound. they take the same rxn.
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an element is s chemically pure substance containing a particular type of atoms.. A COMPOUND is a substance containing atoms from different elements..
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Starch is a mixture (of chemicals) of amylose and amylopectin. Both are macromolecules and polymers. You can search on wikipedia.
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Roles can be classified or correlate it to different areas: For example: Chlorine can be used in reactions (in industry) to manufacture HCl, which then can be used for other things. Or in swimming pools to kill bacteria. Or as a component in compounds with pharmaceutical roles (drugs). For Al:
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it is an adverb which means extremely
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Lewis structure for no3
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It is an acid which partially ionises in water.
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The force applied to suction Area of the body
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Matter composed of exceedingly small paticle called atom.
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occurrence and preparation of the representatives metals
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list the 20, periodic table and their symbols
Fathmat Reply
hydrogen:h helium;he lithium:l beryllium:be Boron:b Carbon;C Nitrogen:n Oxygen:O FLUORINE:f Neon:n Sodium:s Magnesium:mg Aluminum:a Silicon:s Phosphorus:p Sulphur:s Chlorine:c Argon;a Potassium:p Calcium:c
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Hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, argon, potassium, calcium
Cudjoe
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Any substance that is disolved in a liqid solvent to create a solution
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is the substance that dissolves in the solvent
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Honest Reply
No, covalent compound ➡️ molecule. As both H and Cl are non-metals and and form covalent bind by sharing valence e-. But can fully ionice in water forming H+ (a proton, a reason for acidity) and Cl- (anion =Chloride) Hydrogen Chloride is a gas at room; Hydrochloric acid = HCl (aq), dissolved in w
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Form covalenr bond*
Abdelkarim
The question marks are an emoji in the first sentence is an unread emoji. HCl Covalent compund -> molecule
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is the study of composition of substances and the way they behave under different conditions
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is the study of properties of matter and it's component
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Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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