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While high stakes testing continues as the centerpiece of education reform efforts to improve education, the impact of high stakes testing on principals needs further exploration. The Principal’s High Stakes Testing Survey, a 48-item instrument, was employed to collect data on Georgia principals’ views about the impact of high stakes testing on education in their schools. Principals’ responded to survey items measured on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) that were grouped into six domains; curriculum, teaching, work satisfaction, stress, accountability, and students. A stratified random sample of principals from Georgia’s elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools participated in the study. Principals’ responses did not differ by gender, educational level, or school configuration. However, African American principals responded more positively than did White principals to items on the instrument.

Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011)

NCPEA Education Leadership Review is a nationally refereed journal published two times a year, in Winter (April), and Fall (October) by the National Council of Professors ofEducational Administration. Editor: Kenneth Lane , Southeastern Louisiana University; Assistant Editor: Gerard Babo , Seton Hall University; Founding Editor: Theodore Creighton , Virginia Tech.

This manuscript has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this module is published in the International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, Volume 6, Number 2 (April - June, 2011), ISSN 2155-9635.

Authors

Lantry L. Brockmeier , Valdosta State University

Don W. Leech , Valdosta State University

James L. Pate , Valdosta State University

Nicole M. Gibson , Valdosta State University

Introduction

High stakes testing is not new to the American education system. The initial use of test-based reform in education began in the mid-1840s in Massachusetts (Resnick, 1982). Under leadership of the Massachusetts superintendent, Horace Mann, tests were developed to assess student knowledge in several disciplines. The results were published to allow for comparisons of schools and classrooms (Hamilton, 2003). Tyack (1974) reported that by the 1870s many states were administering tests and reporting the results in newspapers. Whereas student promotion had been based on teacher recommendations, student promotion became tied to the success or failure on these tests in the latter part of the 1800s (Engelhart, 1950).

Resnick (1982) indicated that before World War I there were over 200 tests available for use in schools. Linn, Miller, and Gronlund (2005) stated that a number of achievement test batteries were published after World War I, but the use of tests did not expand greatly until after World War II. In the 1960s, the Elementary and Secondary School Act grew from the recognition of differences in student performance and educational opportunities. Stakeholders were dissatisfied with the progress of students and as a result the amount of testing increased.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
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