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In the first half of the century this area was controlled chiefly by the Magyars but after their defeat by King Otto in A.D. 955, the southeastern territories were given to Leopold of Babenberg as a reward for his help in crushing a Bavarian revolt. The Babenberg Dynasty then ruled Austria for the next 270 years, although nominally subject to the Holy Roman Emperor. In A.D. 996 the word "Ostarrichi" appeared for the first time in a document of the emperor. The word simply means "eastern realm".


The Magyars, who dominated and populated Hungary, raided far and wide between A.D. 937 and 955, going over all central Europe and to Orleans and Tours in France, as well as south to Nimes and then down Italy to the tip of the heel, but they did not settle and the disruption was short-lived. (Ref. 8 ) After they were defeated by the German Otto in 955 they took up Christianity of the Latin variety, as they were afraid of Byzantium. Throughout all, however, they retained their own Turko-Finnic (Magyar) language.

On the political scene, Arpad, who had led the Magyars into Hungary in about 907, was followed eventually by a great grandson, Duke Geisa, who established friendly relations with the Ottonian court and allowed some missionary activity from them. Geisa (also Geza) and his more famous son, Stephen (997-1038), welded the Magyars into a kingdom. Stephen, whose original name was Vajk, before his baptism, married a Bavarian princess and in A.D. 1,001 was crowned by the pope as King Stephen of Hungary

Stephen was canonized in 1083. (Ref. 119 )
(Ref. 119 )


The Magyars of Hungary spent the opening years of the century destroying the Empire of Great Moravia. (Ref. 137 ) The creation of Bohemia (and Poland) by the Premyslid Dynasty was founded on agricultural development, suppression of tribal differences in spite of many independent tribal aristocracies and the influence of the Christian church. When Bohemia was early threatened by the Magyars, Miesko I made his country a vassal of Germany and then Bohemia emerged as a stable unit after 929 under Boleslav of the Premyslid line. (Ref. 8 ) Boleslav II founded the Bishopric of Prague, which resulted in the final conversion of the entire area, including Poland and Hungary, to Latin Christianity. Later in the century Bohemia became subject to the Polish ruler, as will be noted under EASTERN EUROPE, this chapter.

Lest we get carried away by the noble concept of kings and queens, nobles and bishops in this area of Europe, we should realize that these people were in many respects still fairly primitive and that cannibalism was not unknown. Some bands sold human meat labeled "pork" or "mutton", and this practice was to continue for centuries. (Ref. 211 )


Switzerland had no separate existence at this time with its territory split between the domains of the Saxon Dynasty and the rulers of Burgundy. The relatively inaccessible Burgundy area was raided by Vikings, Moslems and finally Magyars, all within about 50 years. (Ref. 137 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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