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Austria

In the first half of the century this area was controlled chiefly by the Magyars but after their defeat by King Otto in A.D. 955, the southeastern territories were given to Leopold of Babenberg as a reward for his help in crushing a Bavarian revolt. The Babenberg Dynasty then ruled Austria for the next 270 years, although nominally subject to the Holy Roman Emperor. In A.D. 996 the word "Ostarrichi" appeared for the first time in a document of the emperor. The word simply means "eastern realm".

Hungary

The Magyars, who dominated and populated Hungary, raided far and wide between A.D. 937 and 955, going over all central Europe and to Orleans and Tours in France, as well as south to Nimes and then down Italy to the tip of the heel, but they did not settle and the disruption was short-lived. (Ref. 8 ) After they were defeated by the German Otto in 955 they took up Christianity of the Latin variety, as they were afraid of Byzantium. Throughout all, however, they retained their own Turko-Finnic (Magyar) language.

On the political scene, Arpad, who had led the Magyars into Hungary in about 907, was followed eventually by a great grandson, Duke Geisa, who established friendly relations with the Ottonian court and allowed some missionary activity from them. Geisa (also Geza) and his more famous son, Stephen (997-1038), welded the Magyars into a kingdom. Stephen, whose original name was Vajk, before his baptism, married a Bavarian princess and in A.D. 1,001 was crowned by the pope as King Stephen of Hungary

Stephen was canonized in 1083. (Ref. 119 )
(Ref. 119 )

Czechoslovakia

The Magyars of Hungary spent the opening years of the century destroying the Empire of Great Moravia. (Ref. 137 ) The creation of Bohemia (and Poland) by the Premyslid Dynasty was founded on agricultural development, suppression of tribal differences in spite of many independent tribal aristocracies and the influence of the Christian church. When Bohemia was early threatened by the Magyars, Miesko I made his country a vassal of Germany and then Bohemia emerged as a stable unit after 929 under Boleslav of the Premyslid line. (Ref. 8 ) Boleslav II founded the Bishopric of Prague, which resulted in the final conversion of the entire area, including Poland and Hungary, to Latin Christianity. Later in the century Bohemia became subject to the Polish ruler, as will be noted under EASTERN EUROPE, this chapter.

Lest we get carried away by the noble concept of kings and queens, nobles and bishops in this area of Europe, we should realize that these people were in many respects still fairly primitive and that cannibalism was not unknown. Some bands sold human meat labeled "pork" or "mutton", and this practice was to continue for centuries. (Ref. 211 )

Switzerland

Switzerland had no separate existence at this time with its territory split between the domains of the Saxon Dynasty and the rulers of Burgundy. The relatively inaccessible Burgundy area was raided by Vikings, Moslems and finally Magyars, all within about 50 years. (Ref. 137 )

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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