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Austria

In the first half of the century this area was controlled chiefly by the Magyars but after their defeat by King Otto in A.D. 955, the southeastern territories were given to Leopold of Babenberg as a reward for his help in crushing a Bavarian revolt. The Babenberg Dynasty then ruled Austria for the next 270 years, although nominally subject to the Holy Roman Emperor. In A.D. 996 the word "Ostarrichi" appeared for the first time in a document of the emperor. The word simply means "eastern realm".

Hungary

The Magyars, who dominated and populated Hungary, raided far and wide between A.D. 937 and 955, going over all central Europe and to Orleans and Tours in France, as well as south to Nimes and then down Italy to the tip of the heel, but they did not settle and the disruption was short-lived. (Ref. 8 ) After they were defeated by the German Otto in 955 they took up Christianity of the Latin variety, as they were afraid of Byzantium. Throughout all, however, they retained their own Turko-Finnic (Magyar) language.

On the political scene, Arpad, who had led the Magyars into Hungary in about 907, was followed eventually by a great grandson, Duke Geisa, who established friendly relations with the Ottonian court and allowed some missionary activity from them. Geisa (also Geza) and his more famous son, Stephen (997-1038), welded the Magyars into a kingdom. Stephen, whose original name was Vajk, before his baptism, married a Bavarian princess and in A.D. 1,001 was crowned by the pope as King Stephen of Hungary

Stephen was canonized in 1083. (Ref. 119 )
(Ref. 119 )

Czechoslovakia

The Magyars of Hungary spent the opening years of the century destroying the Empire of Great Moravia. (Ref. 137 ) The creation of Bohemia (and Poland) by the Premyslid Dynasty was founded on agricultural development, suppression of tribal differences in spite of many independent tribal aristocracies and the influence of the Christian church. When Bohemia was early threatened by the Magyars, Miesko I made his country a vassal of Germany and then Bohemia emerged as a stable unit after 929 under Boleslav of the Premyslid line. (Ref. 8 ) Boleslav II founded the Bishopric of Prague, which resulted in the final conversion of the entire area, including Poland and Hungary, to Latin Christianity. Later in the century Bohemia became subject to the Polish ruler, as will be noted under EASTERN EUROPE, this chapter.

Lest we get carried away by the noble concept of kings and queens, nobles and bishops in this area of Europe, we should realize that these people were in many respects still fairly primitive and that cannibalism was not unknown. Some bands sold human meat labeled "pork" or "mutton", and this practice was to continue for centuries. (Ref. 211 )

Switzerland

Switzerland had no separate existence at this time with its territory split between the domains of the Saxon Dynasty and the rulers of Burgundy. The relatively inaccessible Burgundy area was raided by Vikings, Moslems and finally Magyars, all within about 50 years. (Ref. 137 )

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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