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Lucius Licinium Lucullus, one of the Roman generals in the Third Mithridatic War, is credited with bringing the cherry into Europe from the - shores of the Black Sea. Every Roman (as well as every Greek) had his beehives, as honey was the only sweetening common in the West. Indian cane sugar was more expensive and the raw cane was actually less tasty than honey, so there was no attempt to import it, except for medicinal purposes. (Ref. 48 , 122 )

Central europe

Germany

There was now a predominance of Germanic tribes in the area of present day Germany and Caesar and the Romans never actually penetrated that area although Roman merchants and traders did appear with goods to trade for furs and slaves. As the Germanic tribes came south their first encounters were with Celts, but whether much fighting was involved or not is unknown. Actually the Germans were very little different from the Celts; their religions and their languages had common origins. The Romans said the Germans were rather blonder, but otherwise little physical distinction was made.

Drusus conquered the Bavarian region for Rome from the Celts in 15 B.C. and Rhaetia, which included parts of southern Bavaria along with the Tyrol and east Switzerland, was established as a Roman province late in the century.

Austria and hungary

Having conquered the Celtic Cimbri and Teutones coming down at the edge of Italy and Austria, the Romans now squeezed the Celts out of Austria and consolidated their authority along the Danube clear to Budapest. Some of eastern present day Hungary appeared to be a part of the Kingdom of Dacia, which held out against Roman control for another century.

Czechoslovakia

The Celtic Boii people, for whom Bohemia was named were driven out of Bohemia at this time by the Germanic tribes descending from the north.

Switzerland

As noted above east Switzerland was included in the Roman province of Rhaetia. The crowded Helvetii around Lake Neuchatel began a migration westward with cattle and wagons, leaving 400 villages and thousands of homesteads. Fearing a threat to her Mediterranean coastal province, Rome sent Caesar north to intercept the Helvetii and this he did as they poured through a gorge leaving the Lake Geneva area. Of 368,000 Helvetii, only 110,000 got back to Switzerland as the Romans retained control of the area. (Ref. 194 )

Western europe

Spain and portugal

Both of these areas continued as part of the Roman Empire. It has been noted under ITALY above that Julius Caesar was sent to Spain in 59 B.C. to suppress the guerrilla warfare and he did get some help from local groups. It was still later, however, after he had been given Gaul in the First Triumvirate that he became locked in a power struggle with Pompey and returned to Spain, defeating Pompey's son in the great battle of Munda near Cordoba in 45 B.C., thereby gaining mastery of the world. The Iberians then adopted the Roman language and culture. (Ref. 196 )

France and netherlands&Belgium

Gaul (France) was still essentially Celtic and Caesar's conquests began the Latinization of the country and helped to contain the Teutonic people to the east of the Rhine. The curly-headed Parisii, a Celtic tribe consisting of fishermen and navigators, settled a five acre Ile de la Cete in the river which is now in the center of Paris. The Batave Germanic tribe settled in the Rhine delta, now known as the Netherlands about 14 B.C. and they and the Frisians became the ancestors of the modern Dutch. (Ref. 175 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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