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The pacific

Back to The Pacific: A.D. 1701 to 1800

Australia

Although the first penal colonists, including 700 convicts and 324 officials and family members had landed in Botany Bay in 1,788, the population of Australia did not pass 50,000 until 1,830 and the 1,000,000 mark was not reached until the late 1,850s.

As the century opened England was so busy with Napoleon that there was little concern for Australia and it was not until about 1,820 to 1,825 that even reasonable information was available in England about the New South Wales colony. Overall, by mid-century 160, 800 convicts had been sent, including many Irishmen. Few free settlers could be tempted to arrive and by the middle 1820s there were not more than 2,000.

It was in 1,801 that Captain Mac Arthur brought 12 ewes and a ram of the Merinos Spanish-origin sheep from South Africa, where they had been introduced from Spain a generation before. But wool was not exported to Britain until 1,806 and did not become a really significant market factor until the middle 1,820s, chiefly as the result then of the prodding of Governor Lachlan Macquarie, successor to the famous William Bligh of "Bounty" fame. The subsequent need for new grassland resulted in the successful crossing of the Blue Mountains and as the economy improved, a scattering of free settlements were started around the coast. Then the inland exploration of Australia was dominated by the problem of the rivers, because away from them there was usually great drought. (Ref. 76 , 122 )

Insert Map: Some Significant Explorations of Australia, and notes.

Multiple attempts were made by the British to settle the northern tip of Australia, chiefly to harass the Dutch in the adjacent islands and to make contact with the Malayans and Indonesians, who had been in communication with the Australian aborigines for centuries, but by mid-century all colonies had failed. In the south wheat began to be of commercial importance by 1,843, when a mechanical harvester called a "stripper" became available. Problems of land acquisition and ownership as well as the problem of labor supply continued for decades. Even up to 1850 free labor lived under the shadow of convict competition. At mid-century one still spoke of the "Australian Colonies", four in number, and initial proposals of federation got little response. In 1,863, however, the political geography was fixed in the present day pattern, although the Commonwealth did not materialize until 1,901. Up until then, the people thought of themselves, not as Australians, but as Victorians or Queenslanders, etc., as the case might be. Gold in significant quantity was discovered in New South Wales and multiple areas of Victoria in the 1,850s, leading to massive immigration from Europe, America and China, so that Australia's population almost tripled from 1,850 to 1,860, reaching 1,146,000 people. Melbourne grew fiercely as the seat of government of the gold fields of Victoria and the presence of thousands of "diggers" in those fields resulted in a lasting nickname for any of Australia's residents. But even then, wool-growing remained the premier industry.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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