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The pacific

Back to The Pacific: A.D. 1701 to 1800

Australia

Although the first penal colonists, including 700 convicts and 324 officials and family members had landed in Botany Bay in 1,788, the population of Australia did not pass 50,000 until 1,830 and the 1,000,000 mark was not reached until the late 1,850s.

As the century opened England was so busy with Napoleon that there was little concern for Australia and it was not until about 1,820 to 1,825 that even reasonable information was available in England about the New South Wales colony. Overall, by mid-century 160, 800 convicts had been sent, including many Irishmen. Few free settlers could be tempted to arrive and by the middle 1820s there were not more than 2,000.

It was in 1,801 that Captain Mac Arthur brought 12 ewes and a ram of the Merinos Spanish-origin sheep from South Africa, where they had been introduced from Spain a generation before. But wool was not exported to Britain until 1,806 and did not become a really significant market factor until the middle 1,820s, chiefly as the result then of the prodding of Governor Lachlan Macquarie, successor to the famous William Bligh of "Bounty" fame. The subsequent need for new grassland resulted in the successful crossing of the Blue Mountains and as the economy improved, a scattering of free settlements were started around the coast. Then the inland exploration of Australia was dominated by the problem of the rivers, because away from them there was usually great drought. (Ref. 76 , 122 )

Insert Map: Some Significant Explorations of Australia, and notes.

Multiple attempts were made by the British to settle the northern tip of Australia, chiefly to harass the Dutch in the adjacent islands and to make contact with the Malayans and Indonesians, who had been in communication with the Australian aborigines for centuries, but by mid-century all colonies had failed. In the south wheat began to be of commercial importance by 1,843, when a mechanical harvester called a "stripper" became available. Problems of land acquisition and ownership as well as the problem of labor supply continued for decades. Even up to 1850 free labor lived under the shadow of convict competition. At mid-century one still spoke of the "Australian Colonies", four in number, and initial proposals of federation got little response. In 1,863, however, the political geography was fixed in the present day pattern, although the Commonwealth did not materialize until 1,901. Up until then, the people thought of themselves, not as Australians, but as Victorians or Queenslanders, etc., as the case might be. Gold in significant quantity was discovered in New South Wales and multiple areas of Victoria in the 1,850s, leading to massive immigration from Europe, America and China, so that Australia's population almost tripled from 1,850 to 1,860, reaching 1,146,000 people. Melbourne grew fiercely as the seat of government of the gold fields of Victoria and the presence of thousands of "diggers" in those fields resulted in a lasting nickname for any of Australia's residents. But even then, wool-growing remained the premier industry.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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