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Natural sciences

Grade 8

Biodiversity

Module 28

Plant adaptations

Like animals, plants have also made adaptations to survive under particular climatic conditions.

As water is of utmost importance for the survival of plants, their adaptations are related to the availability of water. Plants can be divided into three groups with regard to this type of adaptation.

  • XEROPHYTES – minimal availability of water
  • MESOPHYTES – moderate availability of water – as with most plants growing on land
  • HYDROPHYTES – maximal availability of water

Activity: to classify plants

Study the following sketches and classify the plants according to their structures as hydro-, meso- or xerophytes. Attempt to provide at least one reason for your classification in each instance.

Activity: to explain the way in which some plants adapt

HYDROPHYTE ADAPTATION EXPLANATION

Roots Poorly developed, only for anchoring

Leaves Large surface

Floating Cuticle (waxy layer) on surface

Air pockets in leaf

Stomata (small openings) on top

Stems

Very little strengthening tissue

Slimy layer

Rhizome (stores food)

XEROPHYTE ADAPTATION EXPLANATION

Roots

Shallow root system

Corky layer

Leaves

Few stomata, mainly on underside

Small or converted to thorns

Stems Thick and fleshy

Waxy layer

Could you supply correct explanations for each adaptation?

Assessment of assignment: [LO 2.4]

Assignment: story

The San most probably were the first people to live in Southern Africa and we still think of their ability to survive such dry conditions with astonishment. Water was a very limited resource.

But we do not have to go very far to discover some of the solutions that the San found centuries ago in nature and in plants (xerophytes), in particular.

Read about the natural vegetation of the desert-like parts of our country.

Write a story about the survival of a plant in the Kalahari Desert. Write this from the point of view of the plant. Let the plant do the talking to describe the conditions and how it manages to survive, and how it helps other plants, the San and animals to survive (its role in the food chain). Refer to the San people and how they used plants to survive.

Assessment of assignment:

Could you write a factually correct story about san culture and the kalahari ecosystem? [lo 3.1]

Class activity: adaptations in xerophytes

Examine the sketches of these unusual xerophytes – which adaptations do they exhibit?

ALOE

CACTUS

LITHOPS

WELWITCHIA

Match the items in the following columns by writing the letters from COLUMN C in the appropriate spaces in COLUMN B. More than one match is possible.

[LO 2.4]

Activity: to conduct a research project

Most xerophytes are used as medicine and for a variety of other purposes in different cultures. Even primitive cultural groups practised science thousands of years ago by determining the value of plants and finding ways to use them.

Do research on the Internet, in books and in libraries.

Write a research report, using the following headings:

  • Planning of the investigation (which has to include research through the Internet and books and through conversations with homeopaths and sangomas or inyangas, as well as one or two older people).
  • Information gathered:

Examples of the use of plants by cultural groups in South Africa.

Discussion of three specific plants, including the aloe ( Aloe verox) (characteristics of the plants and medicinal, economic or other value).

  • Summary (summary of findings)
  • List of references: books, web addresses, and persons.

Assessment of RESEARCH PROJECT:

[LO 1.1; LO 1.2; LO 1.3]

Assessment

Learning outcomes 1: Scientific investigations

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

This is evident when the learner

1.1 is able to plan investigations;

1.2 is able to conduct an investigation and collect data;

1.3 is able to evaluate data and communicate findings.

Learning outcomes 2: Constructing Science Knowledge

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

This is evident when the learner

2.4 is able to apply knowledge.

Learning outcomes 3: Science, society and the environment

The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology, society and the environment.

This is evident when the learner

3.1 is able to understand science as a human endeavour.

Memorandum

Activity: IDENTIFICATION: PLANTS

  • www.lithop.supanet.com

Activity: EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING ADAPTATIONS

ASSIGNMENT: Story

  • Do some reading about the natural vegetation of the arid regions of our country.
  • Write a story about the survival of an animal in the Kalahari Desert. Write this from the point of view of the animal and from its situation in the food chain.

Class activity: XEROPHYTIC PLANTS – ADAPTATIONS

ASSIGNMENT: Research project

  • Most xerophytes are used as medicines and in a variety of other applications, by various cultural groups.
  • The aloe ( Aloe ferox), in particular, has a wide range of applications – consult homeopaths, sangomas or an inyanga to find information in this regard.
  • Do research through the internet, books and libraries.
  • Write a research report with the following headings as a guideline:

Growing regions

Special properties of the plant, especially the leaves

Medicinal and economic value of the plant

  • Include a list of all the sources and websites that you consult.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
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