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Economic and management sciences

Grade 6

The business plan

Module 10

The financial aspects of the business

This is the most important component of any business. You do want to start a business to make money, don't you? Financial planning, if done properly, should provide a very good indication of whether you will make money. Three important things have to be kept in mind concerning finances:

  • You need to know how much money will be required to start the business . How much of it are you able to provide yourself and how much will have to be borrowed? Will you have to pay interest on what you borrow, and how much?
  • You need to know whether the business will show a profit or not. This means, will the total income be bigger than total expenditure? Try to make a twelve-month projection (estimation) on a monthly basis.
  • You need to know whether you will have money coming in fast enough to be able to pay for your expenses. This is referred to as the cash flow of a business. Cash flow is not the same as profit. If you do not have enough cash, you will have a backlog that will have to be covered.
  • Start-up money (commencement capital)

Any new business needs money for starting up. It does not have to be much. Peter should have enough money for a good lawn mower and an edge trimmer only when he starts up his business.

Another business, like a car repair service, though, will need very specialised tools to be able to provide a good service.

  • Will the business be profitable?

A business plan should provide a very good indication of whether the existing or proposed business would be profitable. There is no sense in starting a business that will not be profitable!

The business plan should contain a profit estimate calculated for at least twelve months ahead.

  • Will the business generate enough money?

Do you remember that we pointed out earlier in the module that there is a difference between cash flow and profit?

The business plan should not indicate whether the business will be profitable only, but should also indicate the expected situation with regard to cash. Cash flow in a business has to do with how money comes into the business and goes out of the business.


Let us study the following example, which illustrates these concepts very well:

Peter employs one additional worker in his lawn care business that earns R500 per month. Peter's lawn mower broke down and repairs and parts cost him R800, which had to be paid within 60 days. During the specific month, Peter expects to receive R2 500 in payment for all the lawns under his care, but he receives the money on the third day of the following month. He also had to pay R300 for fuel.

This is what the profit and cash flow situation is like at the end of the month:

Service sales R 2 500,00 Cash in: R 0,00
Machine repairs R 800,00
Gross profit R 1 700,00 Cash out:
Salary R 500,00
Expenditure: Fuel R 300,00
Salary R 500,00
Fuel R 300,00
Total expenditure R 800,00
Nett profit:R 1 700,00 - R 800,00 = R 900,00 Cash flow:Cash in - cash out = R800,00

Therefore, although the business shows a profit of R900,00 for the month, there is a shortfall of R800,00 at the end of the particular month. The business shows a good profit, but Peter needed financing to help him with his cash flow problems.

Use the following example to draw up a profit/cash flow table:

Mr Alfa owns his own car repair business. He has two mechanics working for him. Their respective salaries are R1 800,00 and R2 600,00 per month. He buys car parts at R2 100,00, for which he has to pay within 90 days. He repairs nine cars during the month and receives R10 400,00 for his work. He receives R3 200,00 of this amount on the 10th day of the following month only.

He rents a workshop at R900,00 per month and pays an amount of R450,00 per month for his telephone and electricity bills.

Nett profit: Cash flow:

Many profitable businesses close down simply because they cannot control their cash flow problems. A good business plan can show up these problems so that one might try to avoid them.

[LO 4.4]



  1. The entrepreneur:

The business plan must indicate who the entrepreneur is and what experience he or she has. It will also indicate the entrepreneur's involvement with the business clearly, e.g. whether he/she is a sole owner, partner or shareholder.

  1. The business

The business plan must provide the name of the business, explain the nature of the business (the product or service provided to the client and how it is provided), where it is situated and why the consumer will benefit by the product or service.

It must indicate very clearly why clients would be interested in the product and why they would buy it from you rather than from your competitors. It should also provide adequate information about the potential market.

  1. Finances

This is a very important section of the business plan. The various financial statements will indicate whether there is enough money to start the business, whether it will be profitable and whether it will generate enough cash to carry it from month to month.

Now we are ready to draw up our own business plan. Decide on the nature of the business, because the next module will provide enough guidance to draw up a very thorough business plan.


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 4
ENTREPRENEURIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLSThe learner will be able to demonstrate entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner :
4.2 identifies a variety of possible business opportunities in the community (school co-operatives, sports, entertainment, tourism);
4.3 designs an advertising campaign to promote a product that will generate a profit;
4.4 participates in a fair or market day at school or in the community to practice and apply entrepreneurial knowledge and skills;
4.5 describes how the four elements of the marketing mix are combined in a simple business activity.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic and management sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11013/1.1
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