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Thus, by the end of 1907, Europe was divided into two armed camps: The Entente, containing France, Britain and Russia opposed by the alliance of Germany, Austrio-Hungary and Italy.


independence : The right of a person or group to make their own decisions and to act in their own best interests

democracy : Government for the people through representatives that have been elected (by voting) freely

Originally the objective of the concept “democracy” was the protection of minorities. Democracy is sometimes summarised in the expression “one man, one vote”.

autocrat : Person who requires matters to be done without considering the wishes of others


[lo 2.1]

  • Now draw a TIME LINE and write down the following dates. Next to each date, write down an important historical event of that year.
  • 1871, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907
  • /10/


[lo 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5]

  • Consult a map of Africa in 1918 (at the end of the First World War). Study the map carefully and then answer the questions that follow.

1. Which European language do you think, the people of Algeria spoke? Why? /2/

2. Which European religion was mostly followed in Libya? Why? /2/

3. The ruler of the formerly independent Abyssinia declared in 1936, after Italy occupied his country, that his people of 12 million must depend on others’ sense of fair play and therefore he asked for the help of the super powers and the League of Nations. Abyssinia had neither weapons or natural resources.

3.1 Name any ADVANTAGE or BENEFIT of having an independent state. /2/

3.2 Name any DISADVANTAGE of having an independent state. /2/

4. Of what use is a map as a source to the historian? /2/

/ 10 /

Activity 3:

To discuss the arms race as the third cause of the first world war

[lo 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.3]


During the ten years between 1905 and 1914 the Super Powers spent vast amounts on armaments. Germany saw the Entente between France, Britain and Russia as an attempt to surround the country. Thus German improved and expanded its military power on ground scale.

The British forces were under the command of the experienced Lord Haldane who organized them so they would be ready to meet any threat. Belgium also responded to the German threat by lengthening its conscription time (period of military training). Russia increased the number of weapon factories and developed new strategies for warfare.

Weapons technology progressed immensely. For example, in 1906 Britain built a battleship , the d readnought , which was heavily armoured and equipped with heavy cannons . The Germans developed a new type of warfare at sea by using submarines . Despite disarmament conferences, distrust and hostility between the Super Powers increased and war became inevitable.


  • Now look at all the words in bold in Reading 3. In Reading 4 there is further information on WEAPONS , TECHNOLOGY and STRATEGY . When doing this, go a step further and discuss the changes or similarities in weapons over time. Pay thorough attention to IMPROVEMENTS, in weapons.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
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