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RESEARCH: Ask your librarian to help you to find books with pictures and information about the Babylonians and their wedge-shaped writing.

3.1 Now see if you can draw a clay tablet with the following numbers in wedged-shaped writing: 1; 5; 10; 100; 1 000. Beneath each Babylonian number, write our number. (Use your researched information to do this.)

3.2 What was this wedge-shaped writing of the Babylonians called? Ask the librarian to help you to find the name in one of the books in the library.

4. The Romans

The Romans used a system that reminds one of the habit of counting on one’s fingers. One finger, for instance, represented number one. The V formed between the thumb and fingers of an open hand represented 5. To write their numbers, they used letters.

4.1 See if you can fill in the missing explanations of some Roman numbers:

Roman numbers Explanation Our numbers
I 1
II 2
III 3
IV One less than five 4
V Shape made between thumb and fingers of open hand 5
VI One more than five 6
VII Two more than five 7
VIII Three more than five 8
IX One less than ten 9
X Crossed hands or arms 10

The Romans made great use of “more than” and “less than”.

4.2 See if you can complete the following by using the previous table:

Roman numbers Explanation Our numbers
One more than ten 11
Two more than ten 12
Three more than ten 13
One less than fifteen 14
Ten and five 15
One more than fifteen 16
Two more than fifteen 17
Ten and eight 18
One less than twenty 19
Double ten 20

Certain letters represented larger numbers:

50 60 90 100 500 1 000
L LX XC C D M

4.3 What number did the Roman “ C ” represent?

(Note: In measurement 100 cm = 1metre)

4.4 What number did the Roman “ M ” represent?

(Note: In measurement 1 000 mm = 1 metre)

5. The Ancient Egyptians

The Egyptians used a system of picture writing or pictography. The Egyptians’ picture numbers looked like this:

5.1 Study it carefully. The Romans used V and X a great deal. What number did the Egyptians use to write many of their numbers?

  • How did the Egyptians write 88? (Use the pictures above.)
  • Now try to write 10 257 as the Egyptians would write it. (Maybe our number system is not so bad after all!)

Our numbers do not look at all like those of the Babylonians or the Romans or the Ancient Egyptians, so from whom did we get our numbers?

6. The Hindu-Arabic symbols

At one stage they looked like this:

We obtained our 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9 from the Arabs. Our “0” came from the Hindu people in India, via the Arabs, who adopted it. How would we cope without the “0”! Imagine trying to write two thousand and ten in numbers without any “0s”.

MENTAL CALCULATIONS TEST 1

Do you know these number combinations smaller than 20?

1 9  3 =………………………………. 11 7 - 4 =………………………………..
2 7  5 = 12 8 - 3 =
3 8  7 = 13 11 - 5 =
4 0  5 = 14 17 - 8 =
5 7  9 = 15 1 - 0 =
6 6  8 = 16 13 - 8 =
7 4  8 = 17 14 - 9 =
8 6  5 = 18 17 - 9 =
9 6  7 = 19 13 - 4 =
10 4  7 = 20 16 - 7 =

MENTAL CALCULATIONS TEST 2

Revise combinations with larger numbers:

1 48+ 9 =…………………………… 11 37 - 4 =…………………………….
2 68 + 7 = 12 1 001- 3 =
3 87 + 9 = 13 43 - 5 =
4 55 + 9 = 14 66 - 8 =
5 90 + 90 = 15 1 - 0 =
6 50 + 60 = 16 83 - 8 =
7 80 + 50 = 17 35 - 9 =
8 17 + 8 + 6 = 18 170 - 90 =
9 54 + 8 + 7 = 19 130 - 40 =
10 94 + 4 + 7 = 20 160 - 70 =

MENTAL CALCULATIONS TEST 3

Replace * with the correct relationship sign: =; ;<

1 9 + 6 * 7+ 8………………………. 11 9 – 5 * 4 + 0…………………………
2 2 + 9 * 6 + 6 12 6 + 7 * 9 + 4
3 13 – 9 * 11 – 8 13 11 – 7 * 14 – 8
4 15 – 7 * 13 – 5 14 12 – 8 * 4 + 2
5 5 + 8 * 6 + 7 15 9 + 5 * 6 + 8
6 13 – 6 * 11 – 4 16 6 + 9 * 7 + 7
7 2 – 0 * 2 + 3 17 15 – 6 * 17 – 9
8 9 + 7 * 8 + 7 18 7 + 8 * 8 + 6
9 17 – 8 * 15 – 7 19 6 + 14 * 36 – 16
10 1 – 0 * 1 + 0 20 15 – 6 * 34 – 25

MENTAL CALCULATIONS TEST 4.

1. Write down the missing numbers:

1.1 468 = …….. hundreds + …… tens + ……. units

1.2 2 350 = ….. thousands + …… hundreds +……… tens + 0 ………

1.3 8 642 = …… thousands + …….hundreds + …….tens + …..units

  • 7 thousands + 9 hundreds + 6 tens + 1 unit = ……………………….
  • 1 ten thousand = ………………………………

2. Write down the number that is:

2.1 one more than 999 ………………

2.2 five less than 101 ……………..

2.3. between 48 and 50 …………….

  • greater than one thousand and less than one thousand and two
  • ten fewer than 9 000

3. Write down the missing numbers:

  • If 7 + 8 = 15, then 17 + 8 = ……… and 70 + 80 = …………….
  • If 6 + 7 = 13, then 16 + 7 = ……… and 16 + 13 = ………..
  • If 14 – 6 = 8, then 140 – 60 = ………. and 16 + 8 = ……….

4. Encircle the largest number: 1 010; 1 001; 1 100

5. What number is 99 more than 9 901? ………………

6. What is the value of the 3 in the number 3 456?…………….

7. What number is 2 less than 1 001?……………………..

Assessment

Learning outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Numbers, Operations and RelationshipsThe learner will be able to recognise, describe and represent numbers and their relationships, and to count, estimate, calculate and check with competence and confidence in solving problems.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 count forwards and backwards in a variety of intervals (including 2s; 3s; 5s; 10s; 25s; 50s and 100s) between 0 and 10 000;
1.2 describes and illustrates various ways of counting in different cultures (including local) throughout history;

Memorandum

ACTIVITY – WAYS OF COUNTING

1. NUMBER NAMES

  • ICS to supply numbers 1 to 10 inclusive in eleven official languages.
  • Oral group work
  • ICS to provide numbers 11 to 20 inclusive in eleven official languages.
  • ICS to provide numbers: 100; 1 000 and 10 000 in eleven official languages.

Assignment

2.1 They had to count their animals and possessions.

2.2 Drawing

2.3 They put a stone in a bag for each animal or possession.

3. Babylonians

3.1 Drawing

3.2 cuneiform writing

4.1 one; double one; three

4.2 XI; XII; XIII; XIV; XV; XVI; XVII; XVIII; XIX; XX

4.3 100

4.4 1 000

5. The Ancient Egyptians

5.1 I

5.2 see diagram

5.3 see diagram

6 The Hindu-Arabic symbols

Discussion

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
Read about ancient clocks like_ hour glass, water clock and sun dial for a quiz and hand on Activity in the class
Neha Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Mathematics grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 18, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11101/1.1
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