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Change legs.

  • Bring both legs into your body and hug your legs. Lift your head and shoulders slightly off the floor. Hold for eight counts.
  • Drop knees to the left side while keeping upper body and shoulders on the floor and arms stretched to the sides.
  • Change sides.
  • Return legs to centre and sit up with knees bent – hands on knees. Straighten your back and pull your body through your legs with your hands on your knees.
  • Slowly get up onto your feet by lifting your buttocks off the floor.
  • Keeping knees bent, slowly curl up. Head comes up last.
  • Shake all moveable parts of the body.

All stretches should be held for eight counts/beats.

The cool down should not be shorter than three minutes or longer than five minutes.

All stretches should be done slowly to avoid injury.


Learning Outcome(LOs)
LO 4
expressing and communicatingThe learner will be able to analyse and use multiple forms of communication and expression in Arts and Culture.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
4.3 explains how technology has influenced music over time;
4.2 uses a drama presentation to critique the impact of soap operas, radio shows or other available forms of performance media on people’s values and behaviour;
4.1 explains how dance is shaped by and reflects the values of the times and is influenced by music, place, fashion and technology;


Activity 1


  • Before any physical and / or creative activity, the body should be warmed up and relaxed so that the learner will be able to execute the ensuing movements and move with ease. The warming up process also serves as an introduction to the movements that follow.
  • To avoid any injury during the class, it is important to warm the main muscle groups. Start all warming-up sessions with a breathing exercise (controlled inhalation and exhalation), so that the muscles will receive adequate oxygen needed to carry out the movements. This exercise can be done to music, preferably modern pop music that the learners are familiar with. The tempo must be between approximately 125 and 136 beats per minute. This is a moderate tempo, compared to a slow tempo (84 - 125 beats per minute) and a fast tempo (139 - 160 b.p.m.).
  • Refer to "Activities for Learners" for the exercises. Any, or all, of these exercises can be combined with one another. Warming up should last no fewer than 3 minutes, and no more than 10.

Hints / Suggestions

  • Learners should breathe normally during the warming-up exercises.
  • Ensure that the learner carries out the entire extent of each exercise or movement.
  • Count out loudly during the warming-up process.
  • The learner must be able to see and hear the instructions and demonstrations above the music.
  • Take note of any learners who do not do the exercises correctly.
  • Rectify faulty posture or movements to avoid injury.

Activity 2



  • From the start Hip-Hop was a fusion of jazz, soul, funk, rock 'n roll, Nigerian drum sounds, etc. An increasingly skilful ability to manipulate pre-recorded (sampled) sounds, intertwined with live artistic expression, emerged. Everything from the scratching of a needle on a record to the superimposing of records, to the skilled cutting from one track to another was used in this fusion. The future of this genre lay in a creative disrespect for technology and musical tradition.
  • The Bronx Hip-Hoppers in the USA transformed the turntable from a static playback machine to a highly expressive instrument. Hip-Hop represented the politically motivated alternative to crime and violence; it was the voice of the silent masses; it kept children on the straight and narrow.
  • In between the current overload of extremely individualistic rap, the societal emphasis of Hip-Hop was reinforced.
  • As the electronic sampler became available in the late 1980s, Hip-Hop as we know it today started emerging. The sampler could render any sound electronically. Looped drum-fills and parts of old recordings were spliced, edited and restructured through the “science” of Hip-Hop.
  • Texture, rhythm, structure and melody are paramount in Hip-Hop, but traditional views and ideas of Western musical artistry were diminished and democratised and replaced by more accessible technology in the hands of the youth. True Hip-Hop strives towards taking the “funk” out of “dysfunction” by transforming it into a positive artistic and political statement that can be danced to.
  • Hip-Hop dancing is a conglomerate of various dance types - modern dancing, jazz, African, etc. - that moves away from the classical and technical. This dance form had its roots on the streets and in clubs.
  • Hip-Hop is physical, abstract, undefined, soulful, and true to the beat. The arm movements are derived from Rap movement - loose or stylised, depending on the mood of the music - and are always exaggerated. Technically there are no new steps, only different and very energetic interpretations of existing ones. The relationship between the dance and the music is of cardinal importance, creating a drama of the human body. All movements are important and have a rightful place in the dance.

The Hip-Hop dance

  • With this module learners are expected to investigate and demonstrate dance techniques associated with this genre. They must be able to create the movements in accordance to the expressive elements of the music. They must also be able to choreograph a movement sequence for a variety of locations and goals, and to review and refine the dance.
  • Since Hip-Hop had its origins in popular culture, the style and movements change regularly. Before creative work can commence, the learners must first be introduced to basic Hip-Hop moves. They must also practise simple sequences and be introduced to performance skills.

Hints / Suggestions

  • Make sure that the choreography adheres to the agreed upon criteria.
  • Video-tape the dance and have a feedback session.
  • Use costumes and, if possible, build a set and use lighting to enhance communication.
  • Use different starting points – ideas, movement, hearing and tangible stimuli, including dress, literature, poetry and visual stimuli.
  • Select appropriate content to reflect expressive intention – actions, qualities, spatial and relationship characteristics, including specific acquired dance skills.
  • Stylise the content appropriately and coherently throughout the dance.
  • Use principles of form – motif, development, repetition, variation, contrast, transition, climax and unity when creating the Dance.
  • Pay attention to audibility – spatial placing, form, line, focus and projection.
  • Do repetition in the appropriate space to improve the presentation of the dance.

Activity 3


  • It is important to stretch all the muscles that were used during the activities, and to cool the learners down, so that they can function normally and tranquilly in their other classes.
  • Muscles contract during exercise and dance, and lactic acid builds up in the muscles. If the muscles are not stretched after the exercise, the lactic acid can cause stiffness of the muscles. Stretching causes the lactic acid to be redistributed to the rest of the body.
  • Choose music with a slow tempo (between 84 and 125 beats per minute). Ballads are suitable.

Hints / Suggestions

  • Maintain all stretches for eight counts.
  • The cooling down and stretch exercise should not be shorter than three minutes and not longer than five minutes.
  • All stretches should be executed slowly to prevent injuries.
  • Make sure that the learners execute exercises correctly to prevent injuries.
  • Instructions and demonstrations must be clear and audible.
  • Should class still be restless after cooling down session, the stretching time on the floor should be extended while music is playing softly.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11067/1.1
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