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Change legs.

  • Bring both legs into your body and hug your legs. Lift your head and shoulders slightly off the floor. Hold for eight counts.
  • Drop knees to the left side while keeping upper body and shoulders on the floor and arms stretched to the sides.
  • Change sides.
  • Return legs to centre and sit up with knees bent – hands on knees. Straighten your back and pull your body through your legs with your hands on your knees.
  • Slowly get up onto your feet by lifting your buttocks off the floor.
  • Keeping knees bent, slowly curl up. Head comes up last.
  • Shake all moveable parts of the body.

All stretches should be held for eight counts/beats.

The cool down should not be shorter than three minutes or longer than five minutes.

All stretches should be done slowly to avoid injury.


Learning Outcome(LOs)
LO 4
expressing and communicatingThe learner will be able to analyse and use multiple forms of communication and expression in Arts and Culture.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
4.3 explains how technology has influenced music over time;
4.2 uses a drama presentation to critique the impact of soap operas, radio shows or other available forms of performance media on people’s values and behaviour;
4.1 explains how dance is shaped by and reflects the values of the times and is influenced by music, place, fashion and technology;


Activity 1


  • Before any physical and / or creative activity, the body should be warmed up and relaxed so that the learner will be able to execute the ensuing movements and move with ease. The warming up process also serves as an introduction to the movements that follow.
  • To avoid any injury during the class, it is important to warm the main muscle groups. Start all warming-up sessions with a breathing exercise (controlled inhalation and exhalation), so that the muscles will receive adequate oxygen needed to carry out the movements. This exercise can be done to music, preferably modern pop music that the learners are familiar with. The tempo must be between approximately 125 and 136 beats per minute. This is a moderate tempo, compared to a slow tempo (84 - 125 beats per minute) and a fast tempo (139 - 160 b.p.m.).
  • Refer to "Activities for Learners" for the exercises. Any, or all, of these exercises can be combined with one another. Warming up should last no fewer than 3 minutes, and no more than 10.

Hints / Suggestions

  • Learners should breathe normally during the warming-up exercises.
  • Ensure that the learner carries out the entire extent of each exercise or movement.
  • Count out loudly during the warming-up process.
  • The learner must be able to see and hear the instructions and demonstrations above the music.
  • Take note of any learners who do not do the exercises correctly.
  • Rectify faulty posture or movements to avoid injury.

Activity 2



  • From the start Hip-Hop was a fusion of jazz, soul, funk, rock 'n roll, Nigerian drum sounds, etc. An increasingly skilful ability to manipulate pre-recorded (sampled) sounds, intertwined with live artistic expression, emerged. Everything from the scratching of a needle on a record to the superimposing of records, to the skilled cutting from one track to another was used in this fusion. The future of this genre lay in a creative disrespect for technology and musical tradition.
  • The Bronx Hip-Hoppers in the USA transformed the turntable from a static playback machine to a highly expressive instrument. Hip-Hop represented the politically motivated alternative to crime and violence; it was the voice of the silent masses; it kept children on the straight and narrow.
  • In between the current overload of extremely individualistic rap, the societal emphasis of Hip-Hop was reinforced.
  • As the electronic sampler became available in the late 1980s, Hip-Hop as we know it today started emerging. The sampler could render any sound electronically. Looped drum-fills and parts of old recordings were spliced, edited and restructured through the “science” of Hip-Hop.
  • Texture, rhythm, structure and melody are paramount in Hip-Hop, but traditional views and ideas of Western musical artistry were diminished and democratised and replaced by more accessible technology in the hands of the youth. True Hip-Hop strives towards taking the “funk” out of “dysfunction” by transforming it into a positive artistic and political statement that can be danced to.
  • Hip-Hop dancing is a conglomerate of various dance types - modern dancing, jazz, African, etc. - that moves away from the classical and technical. This dance form had its roots on the streets and in clubs.
  • Hip-Hop is physical, abstract, undefined, soulful, and true to the beat. The arm movements are derived from Rap movement - loose or stylised, depending on the mood of the music - and are always exaggerated. Technically there are no new steps, only different and very energetic interpretations of existing ones. The relationship between the dance and the music is of cardinal importance, creating a drama of the human body. All movements are important and have a rightful place in the dance.

The Hip-Hop dance

  • With this module learners are expected to investigate and demonstrate dance techniques associated with this genre. They must be able to create the movements in accordance to the expressive elements of the music. They must also be able to choreograph a movement sequence for a variety of locations and goals, and to review and refine the dance.
  • Since Hip-Hop had its origins in popular culture, the style and movements change regularly. Before creative work can commence, the learners must first be introduced to basic Hip-Hop moves. They must also practise simple sequences and be introduced to performance skills.

Hints / Suggestions

  • Make sure that the choreography adheres to the agreed upon criteria.
  • Video-tape the dance and have a feedback session.
  • Use costumes and, if possible, build a set and use lighting to enhance communication.
  • Use different starting points – ideas, movement, hearing and tangible stimuli, including dress, literature, poetry and visual stimuli.
  • Select appropriate content to reflect expressive intention – actions, qualities, spatial and relationship characteristics, including specific acquired dance skills.
  • Stylise the content appropriately and coherently throughout the dance.
  • Use principles of form – motif, development, repetition, variation, contrast, transition, climax and unity when creating the Dance.
  • Pay attention to audibility – spatial placing, form, line, focus and projection.
  • Do repetition in the appropriate space to improve the presentation of the dance.

Activity 3


  • It is important to stretch all the muscles that were used during the activities, and to cool the learners down, so that they can function normally and tranquilly in their other classes.
  • Muscles contract during exercise and dance, and lactic acid builds up in the muscles. If the muscles are not stretched after the exercise, the lactic acid can cause stiffness of the muscles. Stretching causes the lactic acid to be redistributed to the rest of the body.
  • Choose music with a slow tempo (between 84 and 125 beats per minute). Ballads are suitable.

Hints / Suggestions

  • Maintain all stretches for eight counts.
  • The cooling down and stretch exercise should not be shorter than three minutes and not longer than five minutes.
  • All stretches should be executed slowly to prevent injuries.
  • Make sure that the learners execute exercises correctly to prevent injuries.
  • Instructions and demonstrations must be clear and audible.
  • Should class still be restless after cooling down session, the stretching time on the floor should be extended while music is playing softly.

Questions & Answers

how environment affect demand and supply of commodity ?
Amos Reply
Wht at the criteria for market ?
what is difference between monitory policy and fiscal policy?
Malik Reply
monetary policy is a policy thrust by National Govt(CBN) to influence government spending, purchase &taxes
necessity of economics
Pamela Reply
I will say want,choice,opportunity cost,scarcity,scale of preference
what is monopoly market.How price output are determined under monopoly market
b) Monopoly market is an impecfect market where s single firm having the innovation to produce a particular commodity.Prices are determined through output since there are no other competitive.
Monopoly market:firm has market power & does not respond to market price
Explain the process of price determination under perfect competition market with suitable diagram
bisham Reply
Price determination under perfect competition via this process :firms have no market power to influence price rather firms respond to market price.
price is different from demand- demand is amount of commodity
Effah Reply
demand is amount /quantity of commodity a potential buyer is willing to buy at a given price at market
demand is a desire of customer on commodity with the ability to pay it and willing to buy it at given price of commodity
demand is price of what
Faith Reply
show that shortrun average cost
Baby Reply
what is economics
Mbah Reply
what is money
what is money
Difine macro economics
money is a medium of exchange between goods and services,maybe inform of currency.
Economics is study of how human beings strive to satisfy numerous wants using limited available resources.
how do you find the maximum number of workers the firms should employ order to produce where there are increasing returns
what are implications of computing national income?.
what is the formulae for calculating national income
it calculated by value added method
classify the production units like agriculture, banking, transport etc
money is anything that is generally acceptetable for human
Estimate the net value added(NVA) at fixed cost by each industrial structure
definition of unemployment
Adam Reply
what are the causes of unemployment?
Mbubi Reply
The main causes of unemployment are listed below. 1. Frictional unemployment 2. Cyclical unemployment 3. Structural unemployment
We can also categorize the causes on a broader sense as: 1. Political and 2. Social cause As unemployeement root causes are embaded in this two.
would opportunity cost exist if there was no scarcity?
yes just because the opportunity cost arose when there is Alternative to choose among the alternatives.
I am thinking that, if our resources were unlimited, then there wouldn't be any need to forgo some wants. Hence the inexistence if opportunity cost
politics has done what?
consider time assani
I'm Emmanuel,...I taught the main cause is the change in gov't.
...Lack of capital to set up a firm respectively
I would like to bring in Educational levels can also be the cause the cause of the problem respectively
lack of skills among the new generation is the serious issue.
Where I come from , I don't see why education or personal aspects seem to do with unimployment, technically the motivation and eigerness in all works of live is there , dispite the cultural influence and physical bearriors;the thing we lacking is Government Support and open market ethics.
sorry about that-(repation). We have a over powering ethical political system that's displacing the marketing asspects of economy and causing large scale unemployment right across the board...
can someone Explain Expansionary Monetary Policy and Contractionary Monetary Policy Using one of the instrument of Monetary Policy? Please am kinda lost here?. ta
Emmanuel Reply
using a graph show the case of substitute and compliment goods
Ade Reply
can anyone give me a simple explanation to Five Sector Macroeconomics?
Can someone please define what economics is
jason Reply
economics simply is a social science subject that study human behavior.
economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means that has alternative uses
Can someone please tell me how to calculate GDP
emmanual kapal to calculate GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has three method in calculating it (1)income approach (2) expenditure approach (3) value added method
thanks Alae
u are welcome
in basic terms economics is revered to as battery system, it date back to when Men sees the need to exchange sapless goods and produce to gain , either wealth , basic necessities or to establish trading ties for personal benefit or social asspects in terms of coexistence and continuity, future .
what is the law of demand
Berlinda Reply
keep other thing constant, when the price increases demand decrease when the price decreases demand increases of the commodity.
all things being equal,quantity demanded decrease as price increase and increase as price decrease
there's practial joke to it ..." the higher the demand ; scarcity, increase in production and drop in quality"... quite the controversy - for example China vs Europe, United States and we are all boxed up in between somewhere...
Other thing remain constant the low price of commodity the high quantity of commodity and vice versa is true
Explain Effective demand
Anita Reply
What is effective demand
like Modi is in demand...best example of effective demand
Don't get you
Anita you mean you don't get me or who?
level of demand that represents a real intention to purchase by people with the means to pay
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11067/1.1
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