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But at Orlando the police had guns. They told us to disperse, threw teargas and let the dogs loose. I remember thinking: “What’s going on?” I got teargas in my eyes, …pulled into the shrubbery of a nearby house…

… I turned and saw Hector walking towards me down the street. He saw me and I called: ‘Hey, what are you doing here?’ He just put his head on his shoulder and smiled. Suddenly I heard a gunshot; we raced back to hide. I looked around and asked ‘Where’s Hector?’…

Then there was another shot…

Then I noticed a ring of boys, carrying another boy… As they passed I saw blood on the boy’s shoe, which I recognised as Hector’s. I shouted: “That’s my brother.” Then Mbuyisa came from nowhere, pushed us out the way, grabbed Hector and started running...Hector was still alive in Mbuyisa arms. A car stopped and the reporter inside said we should take Hector to a hospital.

Hector was dead. Today, I see Hector as a hero. Now that our hearts are healed, we can see how his death changed things. I’ve often asked why he had to die, but now we see the reason for it. We can no longer blame anyone. I’m not angry anymore – we lived under apartheid for so long, why be angry now? Patience has its own rewards.’

(From: Marie Claire , June 1998)


EVIDENCE given by Sam Nzima to the Commission of Inquiry into the riots at Soweto, 21 September 1976.

Immediately after I arrived there, I saw two students fall down with a bullet. Two students were shot down.

You actually saw them being shot down? I saw them falling.

And then? They were taken by some motorist to Baragwanath Hospital.

How many were then taken to hospital? Two that time. I left Moffat, I ran to the other corner, then I met a man who was wearing an overall, with a girl accompanying him, carrying a boy of about 8 or 10 years of age.

Did you later find out that it was Petersen? I saw this in the papers, because Sophie Tema followed them to the clinic where he was certified dead, then she got the name there.

Who took the picture of him being carried away by some man? I took the picture.

You did take it? That is correct.

Lo 2:the learner is able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding

1 . Study Source A. What was the cause of this terrible event illustrated in Sources C, D and E? Motivate your answer with evidence from Source A.

Lo 1:the learner is able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present

2 . Study Source A. Find evidence in the source to prove the Minister did not think that the situation was serious enough.

3. Study Sources F and C. Which one will be the most accurate version of the event given by Nzima? Motivate your answer.

4 . Do you agree with the words of Nelson Mandela? Motivate your answer with evidence from the sources and your own knowledge.

Lo 3the learner is able to demonstrate an understanding of historical interpretation

5 . Study Sources E, C and D. Imagine you were the photographer. How would you have experienced such an event?

6 . Study Source E. You ran alongside Antoinette Sithole. Write a paragraph on what you saw happening in the streets of Soweto on 16 June 1976.


Learning outcomes (LOs)

LO 1

Historical investigation

The learner is able to use research skills to investigate both the present and the past.

Assessment standards (ASs)

We know this when the learner:

1.1 investigates a topic by asking key questions and identifies a variety of relevant sources to explore this topic [finding sources];

1.2 asks significant questions to evaluate the sources (e.g. to identify bias and stereotypes, omissions and gaps) [working with to sources];

1.3 analyses the information in sources [working with sources];

1.4 presents an independent line of argument in answering questions posed, and justifies (using evidence) the conclusions reached [answering the question];

1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources; uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicating the answer].

LO 2

Knowledge and Understanding of History

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of history.

We know this when the learner:

2.1 places events, people and changes in the periods of history studied within chronological framework [chronology and time];

2.2 identifies categories of cause and effect (e.g. immediate and long-term, direct and indirect) [cause and effect];

2.3 explains and analyses the reasons for and results of events in history [cause and effect];

2.4 recognises that change and development does not always mean progress [change and continuity].

LO 3

Interpretation of History

The learner is able to interpret aspects of history.

We know this when the learner:

3.1 understands the contested nature of content, and that historians construct histories when writing about events from the past [source interpretation];

3.2 constructs an interpretation based on sources, giving reasons for own interpretation [source interpretation];

3.3 analyses issues which influence the way history has been written [influences on interpretation];

3.4 explains the ways in which symbols are used to remember events and people from the past, and how oral histories can contribute to our understanding of the symbols [representation of the past].

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11063/1.1
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