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Three kingdoms were established in West Africa and they became wealthy due to trade, especially from the east African coast. These kingdoms were Ghana (700 – 1200 B.C.) Mali (1200 – 1500) and Songhai (1350 – 1600) controlled trade in the area between 400 and 1500. Their greatest wealth was gold. Traders brought goods from the Mediterranean area to the towns and cities of Africa in exchange for gold, slaves, wood, coconuts, small products and products made from iron, and salt. Many of the inhabitants were converted to Islam because of their contact with Muslim traders.

Subsequently three of these kingdoms will be discussed briefly.

The Empire of Benin

The Benin Empire (called Edo by its inhabitants) had been established in the tropical forests of the present Nigeria by 100 B.C. Ivory, pepper, body oil and slaves were sold to Portuguese traders. The ruler (“oba”) lived in a vast palace with several inner courtyards and galleries in the walled city of Benin where guards were on duty all the time. The inhabitants of Benin had become skilful metalworkers and artistic woodcarvers, in a region where little agricultural land was available.

The Nok Empire (900 B.C. – 200 A.D.)

The inhabitants of this empire lived in villages, practised agriculture and domesticated animals in the area that is now known as (Northern) Nigeria and the Cameroon. They also produced finished tools of stones, bone and wood, and jewellery and sculptures. The tools were not very effective and agriculture was practised on a small scale. By 400 B.C. the people of the Nok Empire had learnt to work iron. Their iron tools were stronger, more effective and easier to replace and they had learnt to practise farming more successfully.

Iron ore being melted in a furnace

The Empire of Mali

During the first part of the 13 th century, the small Empire of Mali (or Manding) became more powerful than ancient Ghana. By 700 B.C. the empire had become strong and well organised due to trade. They had excellent rulers like Mansa Miam. It was the first West African empire to develop after the spread of Islam.

One of the most famous rulers was Mansa Musa, who exerted strong control over the Saharan trade route. The two important cities of the empire were Mali (the capital) and Timbuktu, the trading centre, which also was a city noted for its many schools. Mali probably was one of the greatest empires in the world of that time. After 1400, Timbuktu became a centre of learning and students from all over the Muslim world attended the Timbuktu University until the 1700s. The people of Manding mined gold and traded with it.

The new Songhai Empire, with Goa as its capital city, developed further along the Niger valley and conquered Timbuktu in 1468. But the golden days of the West African Empires came to an abrupt end in 1509 when the Moroccan army took over the control of the region.

Assessment

Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
HISTORICAL ENQUIRY The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 finds sources:
  • identifies sources to help answer the question about the topic;
1.2 works with sources:
  • selects and records relevant information for specific purposes from a variety of sources (e.g. oral, written and visual sources, including maps, graphs and tables, objects, buildings, monuments, museums);
1.3 answers the question:
  • arranges information logically and chronologically in answering questions about people, events, objects, and places in the past.

Memorandum

Activity

It is important that the learners are given the criteria for assessment beforehand, eg. originality, neatness, correct facts, etc.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Anassong
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s.
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for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
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in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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