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and _______________ (4) and the shaft was made from ___________ (5).

Poison from _____________ (6) and _____________ (7) was applied just behind the arrowhead.

The San carried their arrows in ______________ (8).

Small game and birds were caught in___________ (9)

and big game in_____________ (10).

The khoina

“Welcome to the Khoina. It was the Europeans who changed our name to Hottentots, because we often used a word that sounded just like it. Apparently Khoina means ‘man of men’! Our diet , which was better than the San’s, helped us to develop a larger body frame.

We arrived here from the north approximately 2 000 years ago. Before we moved southwards, we lived in the region that is known today as Botswana. Black people who moved through our territory taught us more about bartering and how to farm cattle in order to survive. The major difference between us and the San is that we are cattle farmers and they are hunter-gatherers. However, our appearance, language and customs show many similarities with those of the San. Contrary to the San, who move about in small hunting groups, the Khoina trek in large groups.

After the Dutch landed at the Cape with Jan van Riebeeck, we lost more and more of our grazing fields. In 1713 many Khoina died in the smallpox epidemic and we lost many of our cattle through various diseases. In order to survive, we were forced to find work on farms and in the towns, where many of our people intermarried with other groups. Today there are very few Khoina left. Most of them live in small groups in the Richtersveld as well as in Namibia (the Nama).”

  1. After your conversation with X!Hau you should be able to complete the following summary on the Khoina quite easily!


They worshipped ______________ (1) for rain.

They were very fond of ______________ (2) and musical instruments.


They were more powerfully built than ________________ (3).

Their clothes were made of sheep skins or the skins of ____________ (4) animals.

They liked decorations and adornments that were made of

________, __________ and ____________(5)


Their huts were built around the hut of the _______________ (6).

In the centre there was an open space for ______________ (7) at


Reed mats were draped over a frame made of bent ________ (8).


More and more of them changed over to ______________ (9) farming.

They did not slaughter their ____________ (10) but they did slaughter sheep.

______________ (11) (a kind of milk) was one of their favourite


e) Now choose the correct answers from the frame below.

The Khoina kept __________ (1) or herds of _________(2). They realised that one can _______________ (3) animals and keep them in paddocks.

The Khoina had _____________ (4) and _____________ (5).These animals provided them with _____________ (6) and _____________(7).

They used ______________ (8) to ______________ (9) heavy loads. The Khoina regarded cattle as a sign of _______________ (10).

  • Now use the following simple questions to obtain more information about the Khoina’s dwellings.

What is happening in the drawing?

When and where did it happen?

Why did it happen?

Do you recognise the people on the drawing? Can you find out what their names were?

How do we know that all of this really happened?

  1. Work in pairs and answer the following questions on the Khoina’s way of life

Why did the Khoina have more possessions than the San?

How were their huts built? What were the floors of the huts made of? What are the floors in your home made of?

Why were the huts built around the headman’s hut?

What did they sleep on at night? What do you sleep on?

Where did they get their water from? Where does your water supply at your home and your school come from?

LO 3.3


LEARNING OUTCOME 3: INTERPRETING HISTORY – The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history

3.1 Be aware of more than one view of the past

Understand that different views of the same issue may be right or wrong.

3.2 Distinguish between fact and opinion.

Distinguish between a fact and an opinion.

Is able to access information from maps, charts, diagrams and graphs.

3.3 Reconstruct the past

Is able to reconstruct events and understand how people feel about them.




(i) 5

(ii) 5

(iii) 4

(iv) 1

(v) 2, 3

(b) Appearance: (1) ± 153 cm (2) fat (3) loin cloth (men), leather apron (women)

Customs: (4) moon (5) sitting

Tools: (6) bone, tortoise-shell, leaf, wood, stone


  • (1) arrow
  • (2) bow
  • (3) stone
  • (4) bone
  • (5) wood or reed
  • (6) mopani worms (carver larvae)
  • (7) snakes
  • (8) quivers
  • (9) snares
  • (10) snare-pits

(d) Customs: (1) moon

(2) dance / song

Appearance: (3) the San

(4) wild animals

(5) seeds, berries, ostrich egg-shells, clay

Dwellings: (6) headman

(7) livestock (to sleep)

(8) thorntree branches and poles / slats

Foods: (9) livestock

(10) cattle

(11) Curdled milk (from calabashes)


  • (1) flocks
  • (2) livestock
  • (3) catch
  • (4) sheep
  • (5) cattle
  • (6) meat
  • (7) curdled milk [curds and whey (amasi)]
  • (8) oxen
  • (9) haul
  • (10) wealth

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, Social sciences: history grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10988/1.2
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