# 2.2 Orthographic projections in drawings

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## Orthographic projections in drawings

Activity 1:

To be able to distinguish between types of lines that are used in drawings

• Several different types of line are used to make drawings clearly understandable. . The appearance of a final drawing will depend on the quality of the lines drawn, so it is certainly worth taking care in this area.

Orthographic projection: First Angle and Third Angle Projection. The views in both will be the same but the projection on paper differs. The symbols below are used on drawings to indicate which projection is used.

First angle projection symbol

Third angle projection symbol

• For this exercise we will only look at First Angle Projection. Your educator will provide you with grid paper which makes it easier for you to draw. If you have drawing equipment it is even better.
• Always start by drawing the front elevation since this will determine the position of the other views. The plan view is drawn below the front elevation, and the end views on the side furthest away from their position on the front view. Each view only shows two dimensions and together they combine to give a three-dimensional description of the object.
• The example below illustrates Orthographic views in the first angle projection.

• Draw a first angle projection of your space case on scale 1:2

END A ELEVATION

FRONT ELEVATION

END B ELEVATION

PLAN

 LO 1.5 LO 1.9

Activity 2:

To be able to draw dimension drawings

• Drawings need to be dimensioned to show what the size of the object is in real live. The dimensions should be the real dimensions of the object. There are international rules for the application of dimensions:
• All dimensions should be read from the bottom or right-hand side of the paper
• Limit lines should be drawn out from the object and numbers written above the dimensioning lines stretching between these
• Smaller measurements should be placed closer to the drawing

Study these examples:

diameters

POSITION OF HOLES

SIZE OF HOLES

 LO 1.15

## Assessment

 Learning outcomes(LOs) LO 1 TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SKILLS The learner will be able to apply technological processes and skills ethically and responsibly using appropriate information and communication technology. Assessment standards(ASs) We know this when the learner: investigates:1.1 identifies and explains a problem, need or opportunity from a real-life context, and investigates the context, the nature of the need, the environmental situation, and the people concerned; 1.4 uses a variety of available technologies and methods to: locate (e.g. use library referencing system, database searches, indexes); collect (questionnaires, data collection forms, requests for information, information searches, literature surveys); compare; sort; verify; evaluate; store information; designs:1.5 writes or communicates a short and clear statement or a design brief for the development of a product or system related to a context, problem, need or opportunity that has been identified by self; 1.6 lists product specifications and design specifications and constraints for a solution to an identified problem, need or opportunity based on all of the design key words listed below: people, age, target market, human rights, access; purpose, function, what the product will do; appearance and aesthetics: form, colour, shape, feel; environment: where product will be used or made, impact on the environment in the long and short term; safety: for users and manufacturers; cost, cost of materials, wastage, cost of manufacture, maximum selling price; ergonomics; quality; production; 1.7 generates a range of possible solutions that are significantly different from each other, and that show clear links to the design brief and specifications and constraints; makes:1.9 develops plans for making that include all of the following: resource lists (e.g. materials lists, tools, people, cost); formal drawings showing dimensions or quantities (e.g. orthographic, oblique or isometric views, sequence drawings, exploded views); manufacturing sequence;

#### Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
are your images copyright or can i use them freely in education