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Many people had to flee from former East European countries because they did not agree with the ideas of the political party in power.

In Zimbabwe we also find that many people flee to neighbouring countries, e.g. South Africa. When their political ideas differ from those of the ruling party, they are sometimes abused and tortured by members of the ruling party. This causes them to leave the country.

Ec onomic push factors

When the economy of a country collapses, people are forced to flee to other countries to find food. One such example is the famine in Ireland in 1840 when the potato crops failed. About five million people died due to the food scarcity.

Environmental push factors

Water plays an important role here – either too little (drought) – or too much (floods). In the USA and Canada this is a common problem. People can be forced to leave their homes to survive.

Activity 3:

To find examples of push factors by means of research

[lo 1.7]

In groups

Visit the library and find two examples of each of the following push factors:

a) Political factors

b) Economic factors

c) Environmental factors

2.2 Pull factors

P olitical pull factors

Sometimes countries with a democratic government is a popular destination for immigrants. Some persons living in a country where the political system allows very little freedom, may prefer to leave that country. One such example is the flow of immigrants from Eastern to Western Europe. However, this decreased considerably after the demolition of the Berlin Wall.

Ec onomical pull factors

People often move to areas offering better work opportunities. One such drawcard is the exploitation of natural resources, such as oil and gold. Can you think of more places or towns that owe their existence to minerals? Despite extreme climatic conditions, people still venture to these areas to earn large sums of money. One example is workers on oil drills in the North Sea.

Environmental factors

People prefer to live in an area with a temperate climate. They avoid areas that become either very hot or very cold. Others may prefer a very dry climate, for the sake of their health, for instance those who suffer from asthma.

Activity 4:

To find information on emigration by means of research


In pairs

Find information on the number of people who emigrated from South Africa between 1993 and 1997. Draw a graph indicating the number for every year, and establish if there has been an increase or decrease in the number of people who left the country.


Conduct research on one of the following types of migrants:

a) slavery

b) migrant labourers

c) students


Learning Outcomes (LOs)

LO 1

Geographical Enquiry

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

Assessment Standards(ASs)

This is seen when the learner:

1.2 interprets information from maps and atlases and from graphic and statististical

1.5 identifies and records information in the specific field [working with sources];

1.7 in various ways reports knowledge obtained during the study by formulating an argument based on information found; uses maps, diagrams and graphics; uses, where possible, computers in the presentation [putting the answer across].

LO 2



The learner will be able to demonstrate

geographical and environmental

knowledge and understanding.

This is clear when the learner:

2.1 identifies and compares various kinds of settlement patterns [people and places];

  1. identifies factors that influence the formation of settlement patterns (natural, economic, social/ political) [people and resources];

2.3 identifies crucial factors leading to changes in settlement patterns in South Africa, Africa and elsewhere [people and environment].



  • Emigration abroad.

The scarcity of jobs.

The safety situation in South Africa.

Farm murders.

Increased wave of violent crimes in South Africa, etc.

ACTIVITY 2 and 3

Own answers!


Own research.

Questions & Answers

explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
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find the value of 2x=32
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Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
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use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
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Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
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Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
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Mehri Reply
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
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why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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