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Grade 4

Map work

Module 1

Main directions and intermediate directions


It is important for every person to know in what direction he is moving. Just think of what the pilot of an aeroplane, a seafarer or a hiker in the mountains would do if they could not determine direction. Yes, they would all get lost and end up in the wrong places.

1.main directions

Activity 1

To determine main directions [lo 1.3]

Today we are going to do FIELDWORK outside the classroom. We are going to the school’s sports field as a class, and we are going to decide together where the sun rose today.

Outside (early morning): Stretch both arms sideways. Now everybody turn so that your RIGHT HAND points in the direction where the sun ROSE.

1. What do you think this direction is called?

2. The direction on your LEFT is called WEST.

3. But there are two other important directions to find if you stand like that:

The direction IN WHICH you are FACING is NORTH, and the direction BEHIND you is SOUTH.

Activity 2

To find a place by means of directions [lo 1.4]

To the educator

Identify points A/B/C/D on the playground.

Hide prizes at the end of each group’s treasure hunt. The field must be prepared beforehand. Divide your class into four groups. Each group starts at a point indicated beforehand and searches for their treasure by following the required route.

Group 1 Group 3
1. Go to point A. 1. Go to point C.
2. Determine NORTH. 2. Determine NORTH.
3. Take 14 steps WEST. 3. Take 10 steps NORTH.
4. Take 2 steps SOUTH. 4. Take 12 steps EAST.
5. Take 20 steps EAST, and... 5. Take 3 steps NORTH, and …
Group 2 Group 4
1. Go to point B. 1. Go to point D.
2. Determine NORTH. 2. Determine NORTH.
3. Take 3 steps EAST. 3. Take 10 steps NORTH.
4. Take 10 steps SOUTH. 4. Take 4 steps EAST.
5. Take 12 steps WEST, and... 5. Take 4 steps WEST.
6. Take 12 steps NORTH, and...

But we have a problem!

If you want to travel from Johannesburg to Cape Town, you do not travel either south or west, but somewhere in between the two directions. We call this direction SOUTHWEST.

2.intermediate directions

Activity 3

To determine intermediate directions [lo 1.4]

Between the four main directions we must therefore identify four additional or intermediate directions:

Now complete the following:

1. Between South and East we have:………………………………………………

2. Between North and West we have:……………………………………………...

3. Between South and West we have:……………………………………………..

First mentioning North or South and then adding the other direction therefore give the names of the intermediate directions.

Activity 4

To fill in intermediate directions on a wind rose [lo 1.4]

  • Your educator will hand out a sketch of a wind rose on which North, South, West and East are indicated. Fill in all the intermediate directions.

In what direction will you travel from Johannesburg to Cape Town?

Use your atlas if you are not sure where these cities are situated.

I travel …………………………………………………………………..

Activity 5

To determine direction with the help of a wind rose [lo 1.4]

  • Let us see if you understand everything. Study the sketch below and then answer the questions that follow:

  1. Write down the eight main directions about which you have learnt on the wind rose in the sketch.
  2. Now indicate in what direction each place lies from the centre:
  3. The tannery lies to the………………….. from the centre.
  4. The N1 freeway lies to the…………………… from the centre.
  5. The water tower lies to the…………………… from the centre.
  6. The caravan park lies to the………………………. from the centre



Learning outcome 1: geographical enquiry

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and

environmental concepts and processes.

Assessment standard

We know this when the learner:

1.3 identifies symbols used in different kinds of maps (including plan view, grids and map keys) [works with sources];

1.4 locates places using a simple grid referencing system and directions [works with sources].


To determine main directions

  1. E

To determine intermediate directions

  1. SE
  2. NW

3. NE

To fill in intermediate directions on a wind rose

  • I drive SW.

To determine direction with the help of a wind rose

2. a) NW b) S c) SW d) NE

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11084/1.1
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