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This finding “has opened interesting possibilities for the development of a vaccine”, researchers at the Pasteur Institute, the national centre for scientific research in France, said in a statement.

Antibodies are the advance guard in the human body’s defence system. They are designed to “mark” a virus or bacterium so that it can be destroyed by immunity cells. Many vaccines, such as those against ’flu, polio and measles, are based on antibodies and use a part of the virus to teach the immune system to identify the invading virus in future. - (Sapa-AFP)

From: Die Burger, 01 December 2004

  • Aids and the South African economy:

South Africa is one of the countries with the highest HIV infection rate (the rate at which the virus spreads) in the world. Statistics show that approximately 10 million South Africans could die of Aids-related diseases within the following 10 years. Most of these victims will be younger than 50 years of age.

These figures indicate that the economy of our country will suffer as a result of the situation surrounding this problem.

Activity 3:

To discuss a statement critically and draw conclusions

[LO 1.7]

Debate the statement given at the bottom of page 12 and refer specifically to the following aspects. Then write a short paragraph about the effect that AIDS has on the economy of a country.

  • health care (depletion of resources)
  • substitution of personnel/training


Many organisations worldwide focus on creating awareness of how the virus functions and spreads, as well as on reaching out to victims.

Read the newspaper report printed below on the role of the Mandela Foundation in combating Aids. Make a list of other interest groups / organisations you know of that play a vital role in combating this disease.

help in battle against virus, asks sexwale

Waldimar Pelser

If more than 5 million of our country’s people die of Aids-related causes, we must give new life to the message that we have to combat the HI virus.

This was the recent message from the businessman, Mr Tokyo Sexwale.

In his position as trustee of the Nelson Mandela Foundation, Sexwale expressed his wholehearted support for the foundation’s attempt to persuade thousands of South African volunteers to take up arms in the fight against HIV/Aids.

In this latest campaign under the auspices of past president Nelson Mandela’s 46664 prison number, a call centre has been established where “ordinary men and women” can volunteer their time and skills in the fight against Aids. The telephone number is 08000 46664 and the calls are free. Sexwale emphasised that the problem with HIV/Aids is related to behaviour.

“The government has a huge role to play, but it is not alone in the struggle. We are asking for more hands, in the name of Nelson Mandela,” he said. According to the foundation’s Mr John Samuel, the call centre will refer volunteers to organisations who need more assistance.

The foundation will distribute pamphlets that give details of its projects in taxis, banks and supermarkets. Business giants such as Absa, Old Mutual, Anglo American, BMW and Spar have become involved.

The actor Brad Pitt will appear in a television advertisement that will be screened round about World Aids Day (1 December) to promote the 46664 project.

(Translated from Die Burger, 1 Dec. 2004.)


LO 1


The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 with guidance, selects and uses sources of useful geographical information [finds sources];

1.2 distinguishes between facts and opinions [works with sources];

1.3 categorises information [works with sources];

1.4 uses an index to find places on global atlas maps [works with sources];

1.6 identifies and explores possible solutions to problems [answers the question];

1.7 demonstrates knowledge and under-standing of the issue through projects, discussion, debate and charts [communicates the answer].



HIV: virus

Illness caused by HIV virus


Many people ill – in need of health care

Government must supply resources

Many trained employees die

Companies must replace them – train new staff members

Fewer employees remain – lower production

Fewer resources (money) for other needs such as education, houses, etc.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Social sciences: geography grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10986/1.2
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