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The flowers and fruit borne by some trees are a source of food for many creatures.

The resin emitted by some trees is also important for certain animals.

When leaves or fruit fall from the trees and collect at the feet of the trees, another series of organisms can appear. The decomposers , such as micro-organisms that cause the dead material to decay and decompose, contribute to the decomposition of the nutrients so that they may return to the soil. Humus is formed in this way. Humus is dead organic material. Other creatures that live off decayed organic material, namely the detrivores , also promote this process of decomposition.

  • Poster to illustrate the Role-players in a Tree Ecosystem
  • Bring pictures of animals, trees and other plants to class. The teacher will divide the class into groups.
  • Each group will prepare a poster to illustrate the mutual dependence of the trees, other plants and animals. Each group must present its poster to the rest of the class.
  • Answer the following questions / follow the instructions arising from the class discussion:


1. Supposing the tree on your poster were to fall over.

1.1 Which organisms would die?

1.2 Which organisms would move away?

1.3 Which organisms would increase in number?

2. Describe the role played by trees in an ecosystem.

3. Ecologically speaking, why is it bad practice to rake up leaves under trees?

4. Name three more examples where humans harm ecosystems.

Assessment of POSTER and interpretation of related questions:

Were you able to use the joint information in order to answer the questions?

[LO 1.2; LO1.3]


To discuss rock pool ecosystems

[lo 2.1; lo2.2; lo2.3]

This ecosystem is extremely sensitive. The main factor that plays a role here, is TIDES.

The tide changes twice every 24 hours. As a result of the wave action, cold, oxygen-rich sea water washes over the rock pool communities. During low tide the water in the rock pools heats up and evaporation takes place. These changes contribute to the adaptation of the organisms that live in the rock pools so that they may survive the various challenges of nature.

1. Describe what you understand by “a rock pool”.

2. List all the abiotic factors that have an impact on rock pools.

Plants in rock pools

The most common plants are sea-weeds or sea-algae. They are red, green or brown.

Although they are not always green, they can also produce nutrients through photosynthesis. Therefore they are also producers.

They also provide nutrition for a wide range of other organisms that live off them, such as mussels and some sea-snails.

1. Do research in order to describe what each of the following is:

(a) filter feeders:

(b) scavengers:

2. What would the purpose of tentacles be in sea-anemones?

3. What kind of mutual dependence exists between the organisms in a rock pool?

Assessment of the interpretation of the SKETCHES

Could you distinguish the basic rock pool components?

[LO 2.1; LO 2.2; LO 2.3]


LO 1: Scientific investigations:

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

This is evident when the learner:

  • plans investigations;
  • conducts investigations and collects data;
  • evaluates data and communicates findings.

LO 2: Constructing Science Knowledge:

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

This is evident when the learner:

  • recalls meaningful information;
  • categorises information;
  • interprets information;

2.4 applies knowledge.


Activity: Discussing the value of a grassland ecosystem

  • Hard seedpods that cover seeds crack open
  • Air pollution – smoke
  • Species are rediscovered, e.g., the mountain rose
  • Animals and plants are injured and damaged, or killed
  • Plants that grow aggressively are restricted
  • Organisms in the soil are destroyed – humus is reduced
  • Younger plants provide better nutrition (green grass after a severe winter)
  • Grasses are weakened if burning is practised or occurs at the wrong time

Activity: Discussing a forest / tree ecosystem


1. Suppose the tree depicted in your poster were to topple over;

a. Plants that grow in the shade and have no resistance against direct sunlight.

b. Some creatures like birds and squirrels.

c. Decomposers like bacteria and fungi.

2. Accept the answers offered by learners, but ensure that the following are listed: habitat, shelter, source of food, shade.

3. Decomposition and the formation of humus are retarded: raw materials are not returned to the soil and the soil is impoverished.

4. Overgrazing, introduction of exotic plants, pollution.

Activity: Discussing a rock pool ecosystems

1. Accept the descriptions offered by learners. The following must form part of the information provided: saltwater, shallow water, high tide and low tide, extreme variations in a biotic conditions.

2. Wave action, wind, drying out, solar heating, pollution by people.


1. Research:

(a) Feeders that use filtering: mussels: minute food particles are filtered out of the water that flows through delicate structures.

(b) Carrion eaters: eaters of dead animals, e.g. crabs.

2. Tentacles: These grab bits of food from all directions and stuff it into the mouth in the absence of the senses of sight and smell.

3. Food-related aspects as touched on in earlier questions.

4. Shelter: plants provide shelter against predators.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
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