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1. Give the three names by which Hanukah festival is known:

2. What is the purpose of Hannukah?

3. How is it celebrated?

Torah (Hebrew, “law” or “doctrine”), in Judaism, is the Pentateuch, especially in the form of a parchment scroll for reading in the synagogue. The written Torah, which consists of the five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, is the cornerstone of Jewish religion and law. The scrolls are considered most holy and are beloved by the pious; every synagogue maintains several scrolls, each of which may be protected by a covering of rich fabric and decorated with silver ornaments. A special holiday in honour of the Torah, known as Simhath Torah (Hebrew, “rejoicing in the Law”), is celebrated in the synagogue by singing, and marching and dancing with the scrolls.

1. Briefly explain what the Torah is.

2. How is Simhath Torah celebrated?


LEARNING OUTCOME 3: Reading and ViewingThe learner will be able to read and view for informa­tion and enjoyment, and respond critically to the aesthetic, cultural and emotional values in texts
We know this when the learner:
3.1 reads a text (fiction or non-fiction);
3.3 reads and responds to social texts;
3.4 reads for information;
3.5 analysis photographs in texts (e.g. advertisements and newspapers).



It is important that learners learn from the outset that tolerance in any sphere of life is very important. What better way to teach them, than by looking at three religions and three representative practices.

Section 1:

1. The purpose of Ramadan is to develop piety.

2. The fast lasts 12 hours.

3. Muslims may not eat, drink and smoke during this time.

4. This is the night that it is believed God dedicates the path of the world for the next year.

5. There are special prayers at the end of the fast and then, on the 1 st day of the next month, there is much rejoicing and festivities.

Section 2:

Since the story might be familiar, one could ask the learners their version of the story. This comprehension should be read with the learners, pointing out unfamiliar words. Learners can be asked to read aloud.

1. It was a plain/simply-decorated church. The parishioners were not rich. They were ordinary working-class people.

2. Father/Reverend/priest

3. 185 years 24 December 1818

4. It only made a wheezing sound.

5. Christmas would not be the same without music.

6. Joseph’s mother did needlework for a living.

False - illegitimate son

True - earned money

7. He visited a mother and her new-born baby in Oberndorf.

The birth of Christ

8. No. He went about it ‘tentatively’ / cautiously

9. The first part is writing the lyrics.

The second part is composing the music.

10. Other hymns were powerful , rich and vibrant in sound. “Silent Night” was soft, mellow with a simplistic tune.

11. It is the front part. (the steps leading up to the altar)

12. an assembled flock

They are like a flock of sheep. The priest is the shepherd.

13. They were astonished and enjoyed the song.

14. Carol

15. The carol was as pure and fresh as an Alpine stream.

16. They are both pure and fresh.

17. Had they not sent for the repairman, Mauracher, the world would never have known the hymn. Mauracher spread the music to the rest of the world. He found it in an upper room. Mauracher found the song by accident. Singers travelled all over Europe in all directions. Father died a poor man. When Gruber died, people still did not believe that he wrote “Silent Night”.

18. It is an area where neither side of the opposing /fighting parties may go.

19. They were enemies and yet they were singing the same song.

20. It momentarily unites them despite the deepest of conflict between them.

21. 24 December

Section 3 : Hannukah and what the Torah means

1. Festival of the Lights

The Feast of Dedication

The Feast of the Maccabees

2. Hannukah honours the memory of the rededication of the Temple of Jerusalem by Judas Maccabeus in 165 B.C.

3. One candle a night is lit for eight nights.

What the Torah means:

1. The first five books of the Bible form the Torah – the basis of the Jewish religion and law.

2. The members of the synagogue sing, march and dance with the representative scrolls.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, English first additional language grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11042/1.1
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