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In fynbos-areas the water balance of mountain catchment areas have been upset by dense patches of alien plants, thus creating a far bigger fire hazard than the natural vegetation.

All seven of the most important biospheres are threatened by alien plants, with fynbos, savannah and wooded areas being affected most severely. Up to now efforts to kerb alien plants in the formal conservation areas of the sub-continent have met with varied success, when directed at alien trees and shrubs. Invasion by weeds and grasses are mostly ignored and little ecological information is available on this problem.

Activity 4:

To do research on alien species and put the findings into writing

[lo 1.2]

The eradication of alien species is a costly and time-consuming process.

1. Write short notes on one alien plant and one alien animal found in your area.

a) Alien plant

b) Alien animal

Some alien plants

Jointed cactus

Invasion by the jointed cactus hinder farming activities and cause the value of the land to depreciate. It diminishes the grazing potential of the veld.

Animals can become covered with sores and ulcerations as a result of the barbed thorns hooking into their flesh.


Parts of the plant are poisonous for humans, birds and other animals.

Early signs of poisoning include sweating, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, stomach cramps, etc. Serious cases can lead to death due to heart failure or paralysis of the respiratory system.

Port Jackson

The Port Jackson was originally planted to bind the sand on the Cape Flats.

The bark of the trees was initially used for the tanning of leather, but was later replaced by better types of bark.

The wood of the Port Jackson is softer en weaker than that of Rooikrans, which is a better sand-binder.


This alien plant is so aggressive in the warmer regions of the Cape that it can choke trees of 10 metres in height.

Invasion in plantations hamper forestry activities. Animals eating the leaves may die.

Poisoning in humans may cause kidney failure, leading to death within three weeks.


Rooikrans forms thick, impenetrable stretches of large shrubs or low trees with entangled crowns.

They cause a serious problem, as the germination suppresses the growth of indigenous plants, causing them to disappear.


Learning Outcomes (LOs)

LO 1

Geographical Enquiry

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

Assessment Standards(ASs)

We know this when the learner:

1.1 identifies and selects a variety of geographical and environmental sources relevant to an

enquiry [uses fieldwork and other enquiry methods; finds sources];

1.2 interprets maps and atlas information, graphical and statistical sources [works with sources].

LO 3

Exploring Issues (social and environmental)

The learner will be able to make informed decisions about social and environmental issues and problems.

We know this when the learner:

3.3 investigates possible ways of reducing resource consumption [makes choices].



  1. REDUCES : Carrying capacity refers to the number of sheep or stock that can graze successfully and sustainable on a hectare of land. Livestock must be reduced to be in line with the carrying capacity of the land. This will protect the land against overgrazing and prevent eventual soil erosion and desertification.

ENCOURAGED : Diversified (mixed) farming should be encouraged in areas with sufficient rainfall. This will prevent that farmers rely solely on one type of farming, and suffer financial losses when prices go down. It also helps to combat the exhaustion of the soil.

2. If these substances are used correctly (scientifically), it can help to increase production, which is to the advantage of the farmer and his land. Irresponsible and uncontrolled application of the said substances can result in the destruction of ecosystems and the poisoning of water resources, so that the land may become completely unproductive.

3. Urbanisation results in a rapid growth of the population in urban areas. This in turn causes a large demand for housing areas and commercial sites, the result of which is deforestation, or even the impingement on precious agricultural land, as urban areas expand towards the outskirts of towns and cities.


  1. Bottle corks: Synthetic corks are already being used on a wide scale

Rayon material: Natural fibres

Wooden planks: Hardened synthetic material – will be difficult

Wooden sawdust: Cottonwool and synthetic fibre or wool fibre

Paper: Impossible – recycling necessary

Sleepers: Concrete

Wooden boxes: Cardboard that can be recycled

Pencils: Plastic-covered graphite

Wetlands form a unique ecosystem and has to be protected.

Wetlands act as a “sponge” to absorb surplus water.

To maintain biodiversity.

Accommodates a large variety of plant and animal species.

Interest of the community.

2. Trees and woods play an essential role in the regulation of atmospheric and climatic processes.

It stores carbon and keeps local water cycles intact.

Stabilises soil (compact) against erosion.

Reduces the impact of floods.

Maintains species – ecosystem.

Tourism and recreation.


Answer will depend on area where you live.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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