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The movements

  • Move freely to the music.
  • Use all the moveable body parts.
  • Walk to the beat of the music in a circle or lines.
  • You are free to clap your hands to the beat of the music while you are moving.
  • Perform simple foot patterns.
  • Experiment with the different levels, e.g. leaning forwards from the hips, torsos almost parallel with the ground.
  • Use rapid foot beats, moving weight from heel to toe to side of the foot, in a variety of rhythmic patterns (as though balancing on an unsteady canoe or picking your way through a swamp).
  • Mime ‘paddling’.
  • Execute movements that suggest finding a way through forest undergrowth, which necessitates reactions of being alert to the unexpected.
  • Bend your knees and at the same time, do swinging arm movements.
  • Experiment with movements while bending your knees.

Dance formations

  • There are four principal African dance formations:
  • a dance team using a formalised floor pattern
  • a group using a free-flow floor pattern
  • a group using a formation from which solo dancers emerge to display their individual skills
  • a solo dancer; usually the ruler, ritual specialist, herbalist, or comic entertainer, who may be supported by a group of musicians
  • The most common form of dance within the traditions of Africa is a team dance performed either in a closed circle, with the dancers facing the centre, or in a line following a circular path that is often centred on the musicians.
  • The dancers usually move along the circle, in a counter-clockwise direction.
  • A linear or circular floor pattern is used in cultures employing a combination of team or soloist.
  • Dance in unison in a circular formation, from which each dancer breaks away to perform individually in the centre.
  • Start in a loosely knit semi-circular line from which some dancers move out toward the spectators or audience.
  • If you are using musicians, move towards and away from the musicians.
  • Move in a more ordered line executing expressive hand gestures.

Dance posture

  • There are three characteristic dance postures:
  • an upright posture with a straight back (used as an expression of authority in the dance of chiefs and priests
  • inclining forward from the hips, moving the attention and gestures toward the ground
  • the dancer holding the torso nearly parallel to the ground, taking the body weight onto the balls of the feet

1. Movement!

  • Move to the music taking into account the background to African dance your educator provided for you.

Activity 3:

To create a dance : ‘african dance’ for heritage day

[lo 1.3]

Taking the first Activity into account as the background, incorporate all that you have explored and experienced, into a dance for Heritage Day.

2. The Creation of an African Dance

  • Select music and movements from the previous exercise to choreograph your special Heritage Day Dance.
  • The dance should not exceed three minutes.
  • Plan the dance with your educator.
  • Employ principles of form – motif, development, repetition, variation, contrast, transition, climax and unity in shaping the dance with sections, linked into a whole.
  • Consider the audience in the presentation, e.g. spatial placing, shape, line, focus and projection.
  • Devise costume and make-up for the dance.

3. The Performance

  • Rehearse and perform your dance on Heritage Day with costumes, masks, make-up, etc.

Activity 4:

To cool down&Stretch the body after executing the exercises

[lo 1.4]

It is important for the muscles used during the activities to be stretched and the learners to be cooled down in order for them to function in the other classes.

Breathing exercise:

Stand with feet a hip-width apart, arms hanging at the sides.

  • Inhale through the nose, raising arms above the head.
  • Exhale through the mouth, dropping arms and bending knees at the same time.
  • Repeat four times.

A rm stretch:

  • Take the right arm across the chest and with the left hand slowly pull arm towards the body – repeat on left side.

Arm stretch (triceps):

  • Lift right arm straight up above your head.
  • Bend arm at the elbow – arm behind your head.
  • With left hand slowly pull right arm at the elbow towards the left.
  • Feel the stretch in your triceps.
  • Hold stretch for eight counts – release.
  • Change arms.

Lower body stretch:

  • Open legs wide – knees slightly bent.
  • Turn to the right with your whole body.
  • Bend knees at a 90-degree angle – keep upper body straight – place your hands on the front leg.
  • Hold for 8 counts.
  • Straighten legs – bring body down to the front leg as far as you can go – place hands lower down on your leg or on the floor if you are able to.
  • Hold for eight counts.
  • Bend front leg and place hands on the floor.
  • Bring whole body down towards the floor and straighten back leg out behind you – toe on the floor, heel raised.
  • Lift the front part of the foot of the front bent leg.
  • Hold for eight counts.
  • Keep hands on the floor and take the front bent leg back to join the back leg.
  • Keep your feet together and bend the right knee towards the floor.
  • Hold stretch for eight counts.
  • Bend the left knee – hold for eight counts.
  • Put heels down and ‘walk’ hands towards your feet.
  • If your hands do not touch the floor, hold onto your legs.
  • Hold hamstring stretch for eight counts.
  • Slowly curl up – head up last.
  • Shake all moveable body parts.
  • Bow to your educator to say ‘thank you’ for the class.


Learning Outcome(LOs)
LO 1
creating, interpreting and presentingThe learner will be able to create, interpret and present work in each of the art forms.
Assessment Standards(ASe)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 participates in the choreography and presentation of a short dance for a performance or cultural event;1.2 in preparing the body, accurately performs a set warm-up and skill-building sequence, including body conditioning and dance technique in a particular style;1.3 moves across space in movement sequences with co-ordination, musicality, quality, style, balance and control;1.4 learns and performs, with appropriate style and movement quality, works choreographed by others from at least two cultures, which may be:
1.4.1 classical / traditional (African, Eastern or Western);
1.4.2 contemporary;
1.5 creates a dance that fuses steps or styles from more than one South African dance form with a clear beginning, middle and ending.

Questions & Answers

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Adin Reply
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Anassong Reply
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there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11067/1.1
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