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Geskiedenis

Graad 4

Hoe vervoer die mensdom gedien het

Module 12

Die verhaal van die ruimtewedloop

Sedert die mens die eerste keer oor oseane en vastelande beweeg het, is pogings aangewend om die sterre en planete te bereik. Eers was hierdie pogings meestal kompetisies tussen verskillende individue. Later het hulle ruimte-ekspedisies geword, aangepak deur spanne van verskillende lande.

In hierdie leereenheid gaan ons weer in pare oefeninge doen sodat jy tyd beter kan verstaan.

Die bekende Franse skrywer, Jules Verne, was ‘n man met ‘n besondere verbeelding en insig. Hy het reeds in 1856 sy nou beroemde boek geskryf , ‘n Reis na die Maan en terug .

Lees hierdie uittreksel uit sy verstommende verhaal.

Jules Verne

Aktiwiteit 1

Om tyd te verstaan [lu 2.1]

A)lees meegaande verhaal, en paar dan die volgende sketse saam met ‘n maat met hulle regte byskrifte af.

Na die Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog het ‘n groep artillerie-offisiere die Kanonklub gestig. Hulle plan was om ‘n vuurpyl te lanseer wat die maan sou bereik! Veertig lande het geld vir hierdie projek geskenk. Die kanon wat die vuurpyl sou lanseer het 68 000 ton geweeg. Die projektiel, Colombiad gedoop, was so groot soos ‘n treinwa. ‘n Gat is gegrawe om die kanon te monteer. (Die lansering sou plaasvind naby die dorp Tampa, nie ver van die huidige Kaap Kennedy af nie.)

Die drie ruimtevaarders se ruimtepakke het bestaan uit ‘n keil, baadjie en broek. Twee honde, Diana en Satellite, sou hulle vergesel, want hulle sou almal gewone lug inasem. Gas is egter gebruik vir lig en hitte. Maaltye het bestaan uit gebraaide aartappels en ander heerlike geregte.

Toe die massiewe kanon die vuurpyl die lug inskiet, het die ruimtevaarders vir ‘n ruk lank hulle bewussyn verloor. Die toeskouers was vir dae lank daarna doof weens die geweldige geraas. Die Colombiad het verskeie kere in ‘n baan rondom die maan gewentel. Weens die koue aan die donkerkant van die maan, het ys aan die binnekant van die tuig gevorm. Die ruimtemanne het akkurate kaarte van die maan geteken en berig dat daar geen teken van lewe op die maan was nie.

Aan die einde van sy reis het die Colombiad in die Stille Oseaan neergeplons, waar ‘n Amerikaanse oorlogskip die manne opgepik het. Vir vier dae lank is alle treine van die Amerikaanse spoorweë uit diens onttrek, sodat die beroemde ruimtevaarders met ‘n spesiale trein deur die land kon reis. Oral waar hulle gekom het, is hulle soos helde ontvang.

1 2 3
4 5
a) Die groot dag . . . . vlae wapper . . . . gereed vir lansering.
b) Die ruimtemanne klim aan boord.
c) Binne-in die vuurpyl.
d) Die yslike kanon lanseer die Colombiad .
e) Terug op die aarde.
  • Dink jy die ruimtemanne se klere sou warm genoeg gewees het vir hulle reis?
  • Hou ‘n klasvasvra. Elke span moet vrae uitdink oor hierdie verstommende verbeeldings vlug.

B)bestudeer die volgende tydlyn en sketse oor die verhaal van die ruimtewedloop. voltooi daarna die aktiwiteite wat volg.

Aktiwiteit

Om tyd te verstaan [lu 2.1]

A)plaas meegaande sketse in die korrekte volgorde. jy kan daarna ‘n opsomming van hierdie illustrasies maak met behulp van die inligting op die vorige tydlyn.

B)rangskik die volgende sketse (in julle groep) in die regte chronologiese volgorde aan die hand van die tydlyn asook onderstaande leidrade.

1. Laika – die eerste ruimtereisiger. Sy is op 3 November 1957 deur die Sowjet-satelliet in die ruimte geplaas.
2. Skylab 1.
4. Die eerste Sowjet-satelliet, Sputnik 1.
5. Colombiad-pendelruimtetuig.
6. Terra Maan Hotel se spog opening op 1 Januarie 2010.
  • Wat het van Laika geword?

Assessering

Leeruitkoms 2: geskiedkundige kennis en begrip

Die leerder is in staat om geskiedkundige kennis en begrip te toon.

Assesseringstandaard

Dis duidelik wanneer die leerder

2.1 kronologie en tyd verstaan:

kan algemene begrippe in verhale van die verlede gebruik (oud, nuut, voor, agter);

verstaan woorde soos “geskiedenis” en “argeologie”;

kan historiese voorwerpe, artefakte en prente in volgorde plaas;

demonstreer hoe sekere aspekte oor tyd verander/dieselfde gebly het;

begin om woorde soos verlede, mite, waarheid te gebruik.

Memorandum

a) a) 2 d) 3

b) 4 e) 1

c) 5

a) 1. Eerste mense op die maan, 1969 5
2. Sputnik 1 – eerste satelliet, 1957 (Oktober) 1
3. Maanmodule, Eagle land, 1969 4
4. Eerste vrou in ruimte, 1963 3
5. Sputnik 2 met hond, 1957 (November) 2

b) 5, 3, 4, 6, 2, 1

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Source:  OpenStax, Geskiedenis graad 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11090/1.1
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