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Air / gases

  • The movement of air is called wind.
  • Wind affects many things in the ecosystem ie speeds up evaporation, assist in pollination of plants and the dispersal of their seeds.
  • Air is composed of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 4% Carbon dioxide and water vapour.
    • Oxygen – used in cellular respiration and combustion and is returned to the environment by the process of photosynthesis.
    • Carbon dioxide – is a product of cellular respiration and decayed organic matter. It is removed from the atmosphere by plants during the process ofphotosynthesis.
    • Nitrogen – is needed by all living organisms for the synthesis of proteins.
    • Water vapour - the amount of water vapour found in the air remains constant on average, however, it can vary greatly from one place to another. Some parts ofthe Earth are prone to high humidity levels, why other locations have very dry air. Much of what we consider weather is caused by water vapour. The clouds inthe sky are largely made up of it, and it is the condensation of this vapour into droplets that creates rain and snow.

Edaphic factors:

Soil structure

  • Humus content is the decomposed remains of dead organic matter. It gives
  • the topsoil its dark colour. It supplies plants with nutrients and helps the soil
  • absorb (retain) water. Soils rich in humus are fertile soils.
  • Texture of soil is determined by the size of the soil particles.

Soil properties

  • How acid or alkaline a soil is, can be measured by the pH scale .
  • pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. Neutral solutions have a pH value of 7 . Acid solutions have a pH value of less than 7 and alkaline solutions greater than 7 .
  • Litmus paper or universal indicator can be used to determine whether a solution is acid or alkaline.

Physiographic factors:

Aspect

  • Refers to the position of an area in relation to the sun or wind or wave action.
  • It is the direction that the slope faces ie North, South, East, West .
  • In Southern Hemisphere -
    • North facing habitats receive:
      • more solar radiation than a South facing one.
      • are warmer and drier
      • greater variety of animals
    • South facing habitats are:
      • cooler
      • have a higher water capacity
      • plant growth is luxurious

Slope

  • Also referred to as the gradient which represents the steepness of a slope.
  • Affects the rate of water run-off
    • Ie Steep slope – encourages fast run-off of water and causes soil erosion. Soils tend to be shallow and infertile and plant growth is reduced. Plants are small and few animals present
  • Gentle slope – favours slower flow of surface water, reduces erosion, and increases availability of water to plants.

Altitude

  • Is the height of the land above sea level.
  • At high altitudes :
    • the temperature is lower ,
    • the wind speed is greater,
    • and the rainfall less and more likely to get snow.
    • Less plant and animal species found
    • Plants more stunted than at lower elevations.

Biotic components

Living organisms in an ecosystem are usually grouped according to how they obtain food.

  • Autotrophs that make their own food are known as producers, while
  • Heterotrophs that eat other organisms, living or dead, are known as consumers.
  • The producers include land and aquatic plants, algae and microscopic phytoplankton in the ocean.
  • They all make their own food by using chemicals and energy sources from their environment.

Questions & Answers

how did Mc connel defined economics
Isaac Reply
what is a economy planning?
Jacob Reply
what is demand
Sunday Reply
demand means desire for a commodity backed by willingness & ability to pay for that commodity
Rajesh
what is supply
Akoheni
supply means suppliers supplying more commodities when price's high or less when price's low to satisfy human want
Prince
the coefficient of price elasticity of supply is the measure of percentage change in the quantity supplied of a good due to a given percentage change in its price.
Khushiba
Please what is Economics of Scales?
Prince
what is cardinal and ordinal utility?
Khushiba
Cardinal utility is the satisfaction derived by the consumers from the consumption of goods and services while ordinal is ranked in terms of preference.
Grace
👍
Khushiba
Please explain what is meant by Economic Integration?
Prince
Please I need help!!!!
Prince
economics scales I don't know but I know laws of returns to scale
Khushiba
hello
TIMAH
hello
Khushiba
can someone help explain to me what is fairly inelastic dd
TIMAH
Economics Economics - The study of how people use their limited resources to try to satisfy unlimited wants
Abdullah
Economic integration has been one of the main economic developments affecting international trade in the last years. Countries have wanted to engage in economic cooperation to use their respective resources more effectively and to provide large markets for member-countries of the resulting integrate
Abdullah
Inelastic Demand When consumers are relatively unresponsive to price changes. A PED coefficient of less than one means that a particular change in the price of a good will be met by a proportionally smaller change in the quantity demanded.
Abdullah
what is development planning?
Emmanuel Reply
What is economics?
Shubham Reply
economics is study of scarcity and how humans make decisions.
sade
reason for development planning in West Africa
Emmanuel
what is development planning?
Emmanuel
What is homo Economicus?
nongo Reply
when a person is part 50% rational and the other part of him is 50% focused on money as an incentive
Yahir
what makes the economy to be stable
BELDON Reply
what measures are necessary to the economy which is not doing fine
BELDON
must find out the problems originating from and take remedy for it.
Rigved
Economics as a social science Discuss
Sire
list and explain three implication of balance of payment disequilibrium
Jayson Reply
In economics pollution, what's spillover?
Chinedum Reply
what is net national income
Ibrahim Reply
relation between business economics and traditional economics
Netra Reply
more explanation on GDP
Isaac Reply
it is a country total out put of goods and services divided by the total population of the country.I think it can also be derived from the country labour force,,because it mostly depend on the labour force and the level of technology .
Tantoh
labour force and technological progress leads to greater production increases the GDP
Ahmed
what is elasticity of demand
Jessica
degree of responsiveness of demand to changes in price and other factors that influence demand.
OBIAJULUM
It is the degree of responsiveness of demand and supply to a little change in price of a goods and services
Ibrahim
What is economics?
Bubu Reply
by this time
Emmanuel
It is a social science that analyses production,distribution and consumption of goods and services
Emmanuel
A social science that study human behavior in relationship with decision making
Jessica
a social science that studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which has alternative uses
Charllote
it is a science that study human begin as a relation to ends and scarce should which have alternative uses
Ibrahim
the science in which we study about the investement of our wealth.
Atteq
what is competitive demand
joe
a competitive demand is also known as substitute demand .the moment the price of the commodity increase consumers will purchase the other other commodity which it's price is low and the vice versa. an example is milo and bournvita
Yussif
what is different between equilibrium and demand?
Moses
equilibrium is a situation where market is stable there is no entry nor exit. demand is the willingness to pay Which is backed by law.
Yussif
list and explain three implication of balance of payment disequilibrium?
Jayson
What are the typical patterns of GDP for a high-income economy like the United States in the long run and the short run?
mwangala Reply
What are the limitation and significant of macroeconomic
Usman Reply
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
SUBHIKSHA Reply
give the ans as fast as possible
SUBHIKSHA
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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