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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction
  • Discuss asexual reproduction methods
  • Discuss sexual reproduction methods

Animals produce offspring through asexual and/or sexual reproduction. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent because the offspring are all clones of the original parent. A single individual can produce offspring asexually and large numbers of offspring can be produced quickly. In a stable or predictable environment, asexual reproduction is an effective means of reproduction because all the offspring will be adapted to that environment. In an unstable or unpredictable environment asexually-reproducing species may be at a disadvantage because all the offspring are genetically identical and may not have the genetic variation to survive in new or different conditions. On the other hand, the rapid rates of asexual reproduction may allow for a speedy response to environmental changes if individuals have mutations. An additional advantage of asexual reproduction is that colonization of new habitats may be easier when an individual does not need to find a mate to reproduce.

During sexual reproduction    the genetic material of two individuals is combined to produce genetically diverse offspring that differ from their parents. The genetic diversity of sexually produced offspring is thought to give species a better chance of surviving in an unpredictable or changing environment. Species that reproduce sexually must maintain two different types of individuals, males and females, which can limit the ability to colonize new habitats as both sexes must be present.

Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms (bacteria) and in some eukaryotic single-celled and multi-celled organisms. There are a number of ways that animals reproduce asexually.

Fission

Fission , also called binary fission, occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms and in some invertebrate, multi-celled organisms. After a period of growth, an organism splits into two separate organisms. Some unicellular eukaryotic organisms undergo binary fission by mitosis. In other organisms, part of the individual separates and forms a second individual. This process occurs, for example, in many asteroid echinoderms through splitting of the central disk. Some sea anemones and some coral polyps ( [link] ) also reproduce through fission.

 Image shows many coral polyps clustered together. Each Polyp is cup-shaped, with tentacles radiating out from the rim.
Coral polyps reproduce asexually by fission. (credit: G. P. Schmahl, NOAA FGBNMS Manager)

Budding

Budding is a form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of a cell or body region leading to a separation from the original organism into two individuals. Budding occurs commonly in some invertebrate animals such as corals and hydras. In hydras, a bud forms that develops into an adult and breaks away from the main body, as illustrated in [link] , whereas in coral budding, the bud does not detach and multiplies as part of a new colony.

Questions & Answers

what is biology
Darkoa Reply
it's study of all living organisms and their characteristics
Ice
by what proces do ameaba reproduce?
Okello Reply
hi dear
Janet
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Okello
Hi
Muah
hello
Bob
yes
Mathew
hi
promise
what is biology
promise
please guys help me with my assignment 😃
Mary Reply
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Mary
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Mary
same here
Rachel
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Izzati
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Izzati
lol I think I understand why we repeat this
Izzati
what is active transport
Amona Reply
is the movement's of water & mineral salts from the reason of highly concentrated to the reason of low concentration across semi permeable membrane & it take place in plant
Okello
in what situation would the use of a scanning microscope be ideal and why?
Anthony Reply
what is euglina
Ruth Reply
no idea
Enock
Which of the following statements regarding membrane transport is false? 1. Glucose is transported only by facilitated diffusion 2.Each protein carrier will only bind and b transport one type of solute.
#2. Each protein carrier will only bind and b transport one type of soluble
Only
#2 is false for the regarding membrane transport.
Only
Tanks a lot
Thanks a lot
what is gene
Okello Reply
what is somatic cell
garaadmaxamed Reply
what is Biology?
garaadmaxamed
is the study of living things
garaadmaxamed
what is organ
Chan
what is biology
Isiaka Reply
is the study of all living things
Motinga
and their interactions with each other and the environment
Angela
it is the study of all living organisms and their characteristics
ketchem
the study of living things and their surroundings
Ade
what's is biology
Mohamed Reply
what's is dna
Mohamed
deoxybonucliec acid
Gibril
explain the osomor regulations in amoeba and paramecium
Adannaya Reply
explain the osimoregulation in man
Adannaya
who can explain the osmoregulation in amoeba and in man
Adannaya
Hello how are you every body
Sitali Reply
join the conversation
Sitali
l am fine every body
Memiru
I'm very fine_hopefully everyone is fine
Rorisang
what is meant by submicroscopic?
anji Reply
what is anabolic and catabolic
Jonathan
hi
Alpha
hi berther
Memiru
hallo
Memiru
Hello everyone how are you and How's your morning
Chan
what is the meaning of biology
Dorathy Reply
biology is scientific study of living things
GUYO

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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