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Kirchhoff’s second rule requires emf Ir IR 1 IR 2 = 0 size 12{"emf" - ital "Ir" - ital "IR" rSub { size 8{1} } - ital "IR" rSub { size 8{2} } =0} {} . Rearranged, this is emf = Ir + IR 1 + IR 2 size 12{"emf"= ital "Ir"+ ital "IR" rSub { size 8{1} } + ital "IR" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} , which means the emf equals the sum of the IR size 12{ ital "IR"} {} (voltage) drops in the loop.

Part a shows a schematic of a simple circuit that has a voltage source in series with two load resistors. The voltage source has an e m f, labeled script E, of eighteen volts. The voltage drops are one volt across the internal resistance and twelve volts and five volts across the two load resistances. Part b is a perspective drawing corresponding to the circuit in part a. The charge is raised in potential by the e m f and lowered by the resistances.
The loop rule. An example of Kirchhoff’s second rule where the sum of the changes in potential around a closed loop must be zero. (a) In this standard schematic of a simple series circuit, the emf supplies 18 V, which is reduced to zero by the resistances, with 1 V across the internal resistance, and 12 V and 5 V across the two load resistances, for a total of 18 V. (b) This perspective view represents the potential as something like a roller coaster, where charge is raised in potential by the emf and lowered by the resistances. (Note that the script E stands for emf.)

Applying kirchhoff’s rules

By applying Kirchhoff’s rules, we generate equations that allow us to find the unknowns in circuits. The unknowns may be currents, emfs, or resistances. Each time a rule is applied, an equation is produced. If there are as many independent equations as unknowns, then the problem can be solved. There are two decisions you must make when applying Kirchhoff’s rules. These decisions determine the signs of various quantities in the equations you obtain from applying the rules.

  1. When applying Kirchhoff’s first rule, the junction rule, you must label the current in each branch and decide in what direction it is going. For example, in [link] , [link] , and [link] , currents are labeled I 1 size 12{I rSub { size 8{1} } } {} , I 2 size 12{I rSub { size 8{2} } } {} , I 3 size 12{I rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , and I size 12{I} {} , and arrows indicate their directions. There is no risk here, for if you choose the wrong direction, the current will be of the correct magnitude but negative.
  2. When applying Kirchhoff’s second rule, the loop rule, you must identify a closed loop and decide in which direction to go around it, clockwise or counterclockwise. For example, in [link] the loop was traversed in the same direction as the current (clockwise). Again, there is no risk; going around the circuit in the opposite direction reverses the sign of every term in the equation, which is like multiplying both sides of the equation by –1.

[link] and the following points will help you get the plus or minus signs right when applying the loop rule. Note that the resistors and emfs are traversed by going from a to b. In many circuits, it will be necessary to construct more than one loop. In traversing each loop, one needs to be consistent for the sign of the change in potential. (See [link] .)

This figure shows four situations where current flows through either a resistor or a source, and the calculation of the potential change across each. The first two diagrams show the potential drop across a resistor, with the current flowing from left to right or right to left. The other two diagrams show a potential drop across a voltage source, when the terminals are in one orientation and then another.
Each of these resistors and voltage sources is traversed from a to b. The potential changes are shown beneath each element and are explained in the text. (Note that the script E stands for emf.)
  • When a resistor is traversed in the same direction as the current, the change in potential is IR size 12{- ital "IR"} {} . (See [link] .)
  • When a resistor is traversed in the direction opposite to the current, the change in potential is + IR size 12{+ ital "IR"} {} . (See [link] .)
  • When an emf is traversed from to + (the same direction it moves positive charge), the change in potential is +emf. (See [link] .)
  • When an emf is traversed from + to (opposite to the direction it moves positive charge), the change in potential is size 12{ - {}} {} emf. (See [link] .)

Questions & Answers

Calculate the Newton's the weight of a 2.5 Kilogram of melon. What is its weight in pound?
Rialyn Reply
calculate the tension of the cable when a buoy with 0.5m and mass of 20kg
Iga Reply
what is displacement
Nyamza Reply
it's the time rate of change of distance
Mollamin
what is the meaning of physics
Alausa Reply
to study objects in motion and how they interact or take part in the natural phenomenon of the universe.
Phill
an object that has a small mass and an object has a large mase have the same momentum which has high kinetic energy
Faith Reply
The with smaller mass
Gift
how
Faith
Since you said they have the same momentum.. So meaning that there is more like an inverse proportionality in the quantities used to find the momentum. We are told that the the is a larger mass and a smaller mass., so we can conclude that the smaller mass had higher velocity as compared to other one
Gift
Mathamaticaly correct
megavado
Mathmaticaly correct :)
megavado
I have proven it by using my own values
Gift
Larger mass=4g Smaller mass=2g Momentum of both=8 Meaning V for L =2 and V for S=4 Now find there kinetic energies using the data presented
Gift
grateful soul...thanks alot
Faith
Welcome
Gift
2 stones are thrown vertically upward from the ground, one with 3 times the initial speed of the other. If the faster stone takes 10 s to return to the ground, how long will it take the slower stone to return? If the slower stone reaches a maximum height of H, how high will the faster stone go
Julliene Reply
30s
Gift
how can i calculate it's height
Julliene
is speed the same as velocity
Faith Reply
no
Nebil
in a question i ought to find the momentum but was given just mass and speed
Faith
just multiply mass and speed then you have the magnitude of momentem
Nebil
Yes
Gift
Consider speed to be velocity
Gift
it worked our . . thanks
Faith
Distinguish between semi conductor and extrinsic conductors
Okame Reply
Suppose that a grandfather clock is running slowly; that is, the time it takes to complete each cycle is longer than it should be. Should you (@) shorten or (b) lengthen the pendulam to make the clock keep attain the preferred time?
Aj Reply
I think you shorten am not sure
Uche
shorten it, since that is practice able using the simple pendulum as experiment
Silvia
it'll always give the results needed no need to adjust the length, it is always measured by the starting time and ending time by the clock
Paul
it's not in relation to other clocks
Paul
wat is d formular for newton's third principle
Silvia
okay
Silvia
shorten the pendulum string because the difference in length affects the time of oscillation.if short , the time taken will be adjusted.but if long ,the time taken will be twice the previous cycle.
FADILAT
discuss under damped
Prince Reply
resistance of thermometer in relation to temperature
Ifeanyi Reply
how
Bernard
that resistance is not measured yet, it may be probably in the next generation of scientists
Paul
Is fundamental quantities under physical quantities?
Igwe Reply
please I didn't not understand the concept of the physical therapy
John Reply
physiotherapy - it's a practice of exercising for healthy living.
Paul
what chapter is this?
Anderson
this is not in this book, it's from other experiences.
Paul
am new in the group
Daniel
please I have probably with calculate please can you please and help me out
John Reply
Sure
Gift
What is Boyce law
Sly Reply
Boyles law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to pressure acting on that given gas if the temperature remains constant which is: V<k/p or V=k(1/p)
FADILAT
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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