# 13.1 An introduction to the analysis of brain waves  (Page 7/8)

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We then plot the results on a 2-D plane using imagesc() . This function associates colors with the values in the matrix, so that you can see where the values in the matrix are larger. Thus we get a pretty picture as above.

## Testing the spectrogram

For the first test, we will try a simple sin wave.

For the second test, we will use a more interesting function. Below we have plotted $sin\left(6*2\pi t\right)+sin\left(20*2\pi t\right)+2*sin\left({e}^{t/1.5}\right)$ over $\left[0,10\right]$ .

This function is interesting because it contains a frequency component that is changing over time. While we have waves at a constant 6 and 20 Hertz, the third component speeds up as $t$ gets larger and the exponential curve gets steeper. Thus for the plot we expect to see a frequency component that is increasing. This is exactly what we see in [link] –two constant bands of frequency, and one train of frequency that increases with time.

>> dt = 1e-4;>> t = 0:sr:10;>> y = sin(6*2*pi*t)+sin(20*2*pi*t)+2*sin(exp(t/1.5));>> my_stft(y, dt, 5000); The spectrogram of the above function

## Application to eeg data

For the final section, we will analyze actual brain waves. We recorded from and EEG, and got the signal in [link] .

To analyze, we find the time-step in the data, then call mysgram(). This gives us the plot below.

Compare the spectrogram to the raw signal. What do you notice? Perhaps the most notable change is the significant increase in signal magnitude near 18 seconds. This is reflected in the spectrogram with the brighter colors. Also, several "dominant" frequencies emerge. Two faint bands appear at 10 Hz 4 Hz for the first half of the signal. In the last section, a cluster of frequencies between 6 and 10 Hz dominate. Many of the patterns are hidden behind the subtleties in the data, however. Decoding the spectrogram is at least as difficult and creating it. Indeed, it is much less defined. The next section will explore these rules in the context of an interesting application.

## Application: driving a car

One application of decoding brain waves is giving commands to a machine via brainwaves. To see developing work in this field, see this video of the company NeuroSky. Of the many machines we could command, we choose here to command a virtual car (some assembly required) that goes left or right. As above, the decision rule for such a program is not obvious. As a first try, we can find the strongest frequency for each time section and compare it to a set value. If it is lower, the car moves left, and if higher, the car moves right. The following code implements this rule:

   %load dataload bwave N = numel(eeg_sig);win_len = 3 * round(N / 60); n = 0;freq_criterion = 8; while (n+3) * win_len / 3<= N %for each time window %define the moving window and isolate that piece of signalsig_win = eeg_sig(round(n * win_len / 3) + (1:win_len));%perform fourier analysis [freq raw_amps]= myfourier(sig_win, dt, 1); %only take positive frequenciesfreq = freq((end/2+1):end); %add sine and cosine entries togethefamps = abs(sum(raw_amps(end/2:end,1), 2));%find the maximum one [a idx]= max(amps);%find the frequency corresponding to the max amplitude max_freq = freq(idx);%decided which way the car should move based on the max frequencyif max_freq<freq_criterion; fprintf('Moving left.... (fmax = %f)\n', max_freq);%this is where we put animation code elsefprintf('Moving right.....(fmax = %f)\n', max_freq); %this is where we put animation codeendpause(.5); %for dramatic effect :) n = n + 1;end

are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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