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The module will provide analysis and examples of how a continuous-time signal is converted to a digital signal and processed.

Dt processing of ct signals

Dsp system


Y c H LP Y T
where we know that Y X G and G is the frequency response of the DT LTI system. Also, remember that T So,
Y c H LP G T X T
where Y c and H LP are CTFTs and G T and X T are DTFTs.
X 2 T k X c 2 k T OR X T 2 T k X c k s
Therefore our final output signal, Y c , will be:
Y c H LP G T 2 T k X c k s
Now, if X c is bandlimited to s 2 s 2 and we use the usual lowpass reconstruction filter in the D/A, :


Y c G T X c s 2 0


For bandlimited signals sampled at or above the Nyquist rate, we can relate the input and output of the DSP systemby:

Y c G eff X c
where G eff G T s 2 0


G eff is LTI if and only if the following two conditions are satisfied:

  • G is LTI (in DT).
  • X c T is bandlimited and sampling rate equal to or greater than Nyquist. For example, if we had a simplepulse described by X c t u t T 0 u t T 1 where T 1 T 0 . If the sampling period T T 1 T 0 , then some samples might "miss" the pulse while othersmight not be "missed." This is what we term time-varying behavior .

If 2 T 2 B and 1 B T , determine and sketch Y c using .

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Application: 60hz noise removal

Unfortunately, in real-world situations electrodes also pick up ambient 60 Hz signals from lights, computers, etc. . In fact, usually this "60 Hz noise" is much greater in amplitude than the EKG signal shown in . shows the EKG signal; it is barely noticeable as it has become overwhelmed by noise.

Our EKG signal, y t , is overwhelmed by noise.

Dsp solution

Sampling period/rate

First we must note that Y is bandlimited to60 Hz. Therefore, the minimum rate should be 120 Hz. In order toget the best results we should set f s 240 Hz . s 2 240 rad s

Digital filter

Therefore, we want to design a digital filter that will remove the 60Hz component and preserve the rest.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Intro to digital signal processing. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10203/1.4
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