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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the role of different glands in the endocrine system
  • Explain how the different glands work together to maintain homeostasis

Both the endocrine and nervous systems use chemical signals to communicate and regulate the body's physiology. The endocrine system releases hormones that act on target cells to regulate development, growth, energy metabolism, reproduction, and many behaviors. The nervous system releases neurotransmitters or neurohormones that regulate neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells. Because the neurons can regulate the release of hormones, the nervous and endocrine systems work in a coordinated manner to regulate the body's physiology.

Hypothalamic-pituitary axis

The hypothalamus    in vertebrates integrates the endocrine and nervous systems. The hypothalamus is an endocrine organ located in the diencephalon of the brain. It receives input from the body and other brain areas and initiates endocrine responses to environmental changes. The hypothalamus acts as an endocrine organ, synthesizing hormones and transporting them along axons to the posterior pituitary gland. It synthesizes and secretes regulatory hormones that control the endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary gland. The hypothalamus contains autonomic centers that control endocrine cells in the adrenal medulla via neuronal control.

The pituitary gland    , sometimes called the hypophysis or “master gland” is located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica, a groove of the sphenoid bone of the skull, illustrated in [link] . It is attached to the hypothalamus via a stalk called the pituitary stalk    (or infundibulum). The anterior portion of the pituitary gland is regulated by releasing or release-inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus, and the posterior pituitary receives signals via neurosecretory cells to release hormones produced by the hypothalamus. The pituitary has two distinct regions—the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary—which between them secrete nine different peptide or protein hormones. The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland contains axons of the hypothalamic neurons.

The pituitary gland sits at the base of the brain, just above the brain stem. It is lobe-shaped and hangs down from the hypothalamus, to which it is connected to via a narrow stalk. The anterior part of the pituitary is toward the front, and the posterior end is toward the back.
The pituitary gland is located at (a) the base of the brain and (b) connected to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk. (credit a: modification of work by NCI; credit b: modification of work by Gray’s Anatomy)

Anterior pituitary

The anterior pituitary    gland, or adenohypophysis, is surrounded by a capillary network that extends from the hypothalamus, down along the infundibulum, and to the anterior pituitary. This capillary network is a part of the hypophyseal portal system    that carries substances from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary and hormones from the anterior pituitary into the circulatory system. A portal system carries blood from one capillary network to another; therefore, the hypophyseal portal system allows hormones produced by the hypothalamus to be carried directly to the anterior pituitary without first entering the circulatory system.

Questions & Answers

The different between animal cells and plant cells
Bridget Reply
explain pyramids of numbers
Saanui Reply
a structure of the nerve cell
Ntale Reply
how many types of viruses do we have
amofa Reply
12
angelina
we Ave 21 families rna and dna viruses
Opeyemi
14 virus
Peter
what is the difference between gems and virus?🙄
Peter
What is nucleoprotein particles
Zanga Reply
nucleoprotein particles could be , tiny micro organizims regenerated and conducted matter.? 'is the least scary idea.'
Heidi
state the factors that determine energy requirements in human body?
Samson Reply
Name and explain 2 nutrients that do not require digestion before they are absorbed
Samson
Name and explain 2 nutrients that do not require digestion before they are absorbed
Samson
Name and explain 2 nutrients that do not require digestion before they are absorbed
Samson
Name and explain 2 nutrients that do not require digestion before they are absorbed
Samson
Name and explain 2 nutrients that do not require digestion before they are absorbed
Samson
Name and explain 2 nutrients that do not require digestion before they are absorbed
Samson
Name and explain 2 nutrients that do not require digestion before they are absorbed
Samson
water : it's a nutrient which helps in d proper digestion of nutrients, it doesn't require digestion because it's not affected by any factor in d mouth, and digestion start from the buccal cavity.
aweda
What are the relationship between Biology and Agriculture
Chisco Reply
what are the relationship between biology and chemistry
Abel
Hooliganism the study of living things(plants and animals) and chemistry focuses on chemical composition of matter.😊
Ronke
biology is the study of all life whereas agriculture is the science of cultivating the land including harvesting of crops, rearing and management of animals and tillage
angelina
biology is the study of life
Elizabeth
biology is the study of livingthing and non livingthing
Fahamia
boilogy is the study of life whilst agriculture is the study of crops etc...
Amoah
which cell organelle is found in abundance in skeletal tissue
Samson Reply
What are the functions of the cell membrane?
Samson Reply
Detects self cells and foreign cells during invasion by pathogens in the cell Protects the cell content Makes the cell very flexible in its function To regulate the entry n exit of substances in and out of the cell(selective permeability)
Agyei
controls the movement of substance in and out of the cell
Queen
cell membrane control movement in the cell
Amoah
what is the four chambers of the human heart and their functions.
Ismile Reply
right and left auricles right and left ventricles
Faith
In which group of the periodic table is beryllium?
Stuart Reply
2
Agyei
are we dealing with biology or chemistry
Samuel
We are dealing with biology
Godfred
what are the terminology in genetic
Odinaka Reply
I want to know if the following stated is be 1.increase, 2. decrease, 3. steady. 1. blood pressure 2. Blood volume 3. ECF volume 4. ICF volume 5. HCT volume 6. Blood protein concentration 7. ECF protein concentration 8. ICF protein concentration 9. Oxygen supply to the brain cells
Rinda Reply
increase
Favour
What are the types of cells?
Akuoch-magol
the two main type of cells are prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell but there are also other cells in the human body such as:the nerve cell,skin cell ,blood cell,bone cell etc
angelina
eukaryote cell prokaryotic cell erkayortic cell
Elizabeth
what is the word phylogeny means?
Bae Reply
what is the word biology means?
bio-study logos(logy)- life so biology means the study of life
okonkwo
Please what's the meaning of deductive reasoning
Godfred
the evolutionary history of a kind of organisms
Elizabeth
The best way to understand cell structure is?
katrina Reply
What is the term binomial nomenclature
katrina
What is the term binomial nomenclature
katrina
Is the double name of loving things
Collins
is the double naming of living organisms
Akuoch-magol

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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