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1 km 1 km = 0 . 621 mile 1 km size 12{ { {1` ital "km"} over {1` ital "km"} } = { {0 "." "621"` ital "mile"} over {1` ital "km"} } } {}

Clearly the left hand side of this equation is equal to 1. That is

1 = 0 . 621 mile 1 km size 12{1= { {0 "." "621"` ital "mile"} over {1` ital "km"} } } {}

This will serve as our conversion factor to solve our problem at hand. It is important to remember that this conversion factor is nothing more than a carefully selected form of the number 1.

Let us return to the quantity 25.2 kilometers that we wish to convert to miles. We can apply the conversion factor as follows

25 . 2 km × 0 . 621 mile 1 km = 25 . 2 km × 0 . 621 mile 1 km size 12{"25" "." 2` ital "km"` times { {0 "." "621"` ital "mile"} over {1` ital "km"} } = { {"25" "." 2` ital "km"` times 0 "." "621"` ital "mile"} over {1` ital "km"} } } {}

We observe that the unit ( km) appears in both the numerator and denominator and can be removed from the from the fraction. So our result is

25 . 2 km × 0 . 621 mile = 15 . 65 miles size 12{"25" "." 2` ital "km" times 0 "." "621"` ital "mile"="15" "." "65"` ital "miles"} {}

Thus we establish the result that 25.2 km is equivalent to 15.65 miles .

In obtaining the result, we developed a fraction that was equal to the integer 1. We then multiplied our original quantity by that fraction to give rise to our result. This is the basic idea behind unit conversion.

A two-step procedure for producing correct unit conversion factors

Here we will present a simple two-step procedure that produces the conversion factor that can be used to convert between a given unit and a desired unit. For the purpose of illustration, let us use the conversion between the given unit ( pounds ) and the ( desired ) unit of kg .

Step 1: We begin by writing an equation that relates the given unit and the required unit.

1 kg = 2 . 205 lb size 12{1` ital "kg"=2 "." "205"` ital "lb"} {}

Step 2: Convert the equation to fractional form with the desired units on top and the given units on the bottom.

1 kg 2 . 205 lb = 2 . 205 lb 2 . 205 lb size 12{ { {1` ital "kg"} over {2 "." "205"` ital "lb"} } = { {2 "." "205"` ital "lb"} over {2 "." "205"` ital "lb"} } } {}
0 . 454 kg lb = 1 size 12{ { {0 "." "454"` ital "kg"} over { ital "lb"} } =1} {}

So to covert from pounds to kg we may use this as the proper conversion factor.

Another notable engineering failure: the “gimli glider”

Like the NASA Mars Climate Orbiter, the “Gimli Glider” incident is an engineering failure that can be attributed directly to the errors involving the mismatch of units. The “Gimli Glider” is the nickname of the Air Canada commercial aircraft that was involved in an incident that took place on July 23, 1983. In the incident, a Boeing 767 passenger jet ran out of fuel at an altitude of 26,000 feet, about midway through its flight from Montreal to Edmundton via Ottawa. The aircraft safely landed at a former Canadian Air Force base in Gimli, Manitoba, thus contributing to the nickname associated with the aircraft. (New York Times, 1983) We will trace some of the steps that led to the incident while making use of data drawn from the website (Wikipedia).

Air Canada Flight 143 originated in Montreal. It safely arrived in Ottawa on its first leg. At that time, the pilot properly determined that the second leg of the flight (from Ottawa to Edmundton) would require 22,300 kilograms of jet fuel. The ground crew at the Ottawa airport, performed a dipstick check on the fuel tanks. They measured that there were 7,682 liters of fuel onboard the aircraft upon its arrival to Ottawa.

Based on these data, the air and ground crew proceeded to calculate the amount of jet fuel that would need to be transferred to the fuel tanks in order to assure safe arrival in Edmundton. However, they used an incorrect conversion factor in their calculations. At the time of the incident Canada was converting from the Imperial system of measurement to the metric system. The new Boeing 767 aircraft were the first of the Air Canada fleet to calibrated to the new system, using kilograms and liters rather than pounds and Imperial gallons .

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Can someone give me problems that involes radical expressions like area,volume or motion of pendulum with solution

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Source:  OpenStax, Math 1508 (laboratory) engineering applications of precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Aug 24, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11337/1.3
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