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Annex vii in the 1977 bangui agreement

The most notable difference between the 1977 and the 1999 Agreements is the removal of direct protection of folklore from the copyright section. Annex VII of the 1977 Agreement obliged member states to declare use of folklore to a national agency and to pay fees for such use. The fees collected were directed, in part, to cultural and social purposes. This section was criticized for its vagueness because most people were not sure how broadly to interpret the scope of “use of elements borrowed from folklore” (1977 Agreement, Annex VII, Chapter 1, Article 8, para. 5). Additionally, the older version of the Bangui Agreement imposed a fine for any use “of folklore work or a work that has entered the public domain” without prior declaration to the appropriate national agency (1977 Agreement, Annex VII, Chapter 1, Article 38, para. 2). The older system can be described as one in which folklore automatically belongs to the public domain and folklore users simply pay the public domain for the use to be authorized. Alternatively, this older system can be characterized as one in which folklore is owned and regulated by the state because, as declared in the original Agreement, the state has an indefeasible right with respect to folklore and “folklore is by its origin part of national heritage” (1977 Agreement, Annex VII, Chapter 1, Article 8, para. 1). The tension between these two interpretations ultimately created confusion regarding who owned TCEs. Protection of folklore and cultural heritage was then moved from the copyright section of the 1977 Agreement to the section discussing provisions common to copyright and neighboring rights in the 1999 Agreement. As discussed below, this new placement did not eliminate confusion and ambiguity.

Annex vii in the 1999 bangui agreement

The 1999 Bangui Agreement continues earlier attempts to protect folklore and cultural heritage. Under the new system, users of folklore must receive prior authorization. The objectives of the system are to protect (Chapter 2), to safeguard (Chapter 3), and to promote (Chapter 4) cultural heritage. “Cultural heritage” is defined as a composition of “all those material or immaterial human productions that are characteristic of a nation over time and space. Such productions relate to (i) folklore, (ii) sites and monuments; [and] (iii) ensembles” (Article 67, paras. 1-2). The definitions of “folklore” (Article 68) and “monuments” (Article 70) are very detailed. Additionally, the definitions of “sites” and “ensembles” can be found in Articles 69 and 71, respectively.

Prohibited acts are listed in Article 73. They include deformation, export, misappropriation, and unlawful transfer. Article 74 states three main exceptions to these prohibitions: "use for teaching," "use as illustration of the original work of an author on condition that the scope of such use remains compatible with honest practice," and "borrowings for the creation of an original work from one or more authors."

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. Jun 15, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11329/1.2
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