# 2.3 Pointers and arrays  (Page 2/8)

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`iPtr =&iVar; // Let iPtr point to the variable iVar.`

In a pointer declaration, the asterisk (*) is part of an individual declarator. We can thus define and initialize the variables iVar and iPtr in one declaration, as follows:

```int iVar = 77, *iPtr =&iVar; // Define an int variable and a // pointer to it.```

The second of these two declarations initializes the pointer iPtr with the address of the variable iVar, so that iPtr points to iVar. Figure 4.1. illustrates one possible arrangement of the variables iVar and iPtr in memory. The addresses shown are purely fictitious examples. As Figure 4.1. shows, the value stored in the pointer iPtr is the address of the object iVar.

It is often useful to output addresses for verification and debugging purposes. The printf() functions provide a format specifier for pointers: %p. The following statement prints the address and contents of the variable iPtr:

```printf("Value of iPtr (i.e. the address of iVar): %p\n" "Address of iPtr: %p\n", iPtr,&iPtr);```

The size of a pointer in memory given by the expression sizeof(iPtr)

## &And * operators

The unary operator&gives the address of an object, so the statement

`p =&c;`

assigns the address of c to the variable p, and p is said to “point to” c. The&operator only applies to objects in memory: variables and array elements. It cannot be applied to expressions, constants, or register variables.

* is the operator that retrieves the value stored at the address held in the pointer. The indirection operator * yields the location in memory whose address is stored in a pointer. If ptr is a pointer, then *ptr designates the object that ptr points to. Using the indirection operator is sometimes called dereferencing a pointer. The type of the pointer determines the type of object that is assumed to be at that location in memory. For example, when you access a given location using an int pointer, you read or write an object of type int.

The indirection operator * is a unary operator; that is, it has only one operand.ptr points to the variable x. Hence the expression *ptr is equivalent to the variable x itself.

```double x, y, *ptr; // Two double variables and a pointer to double. ptr =&x; // Let ptr point to x. *ptr = 7.8; // Assign the value 7.8 to the variable x.*ptr *= 2.5; // Multiply x by 2.5. y = *ptr + 0.5; // Assign y the result of the addition x + 0.5.```

Do not confuse the asterisk (*) in a pointer declaration with the indirection operator. The syntax of the declaration can be seen as an illustration of how to use the pointer.

`double *ptr;`

As declared here, ptr has the type double * (read: "pointer to double"). Hence the expression *ptr would have the type double.

Of course, the indirection operator * must be used with only a pointer that contains a valid address. This usage requires careful programming! Without the assignment ptr =&x in the listing above, all of the statements containing *ptr would be senseless dereferencing an undefined pointer value and might well cause the program to crash.

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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