# 0.5 Sampling with automatic gain control  (Page 11/19)

 Page 11 / 19

The final step in implementing any solution is to check that the method behaves as desired, despite any simplifying assumptionsthat may have been made in its derivation. This may involve a detailed analysis ofthe resulting methodology, or it may involve simulations. Thorough testing would involve both analysis and simulationin a variety of settings that mimic, as closely as possible, the situations in which the method will be used.

Imagine being lost on a mountainside on a foggy night. Your goal is to get to the village which liesat the bottom of a valley below. Though you cannot see far, you can reach out and feelthe nearby ground. If you repeatedly step in the direction that heads downhill most steeply, you eventually reach a depression inwhich all directions lead up. If the contour of the land is smooth, and without any local depressions that can trap you,then you will eventually arrive at the village. The optimization procedure called “steepest descent”implements this scenario mathematically where the mountainside is defined by the “performance” function andthe optimal answer lies in the valley at the minimum value. Many standard communications algorithms (adaptive elements) can beviewed in this way.

## An example of optimization: polynomial minimization

This first example is too simple to be of practical use, but it does show many of the ideas starkly. Suppose that the goal is tofind the value at which the polynomial

$J\left(x\right)={x}^{2}-4x+4$

achieves its minimum value. Thus step (1) is set. As any calculus book will suggest, the direct way to find the minimum is totake the derivative, set it equal to zero, and solve for $x$ . Thus, $\frac{dJ\left(x\right)}{dx}=2x-4=0$ is solved when $x=2$ , which is indeed the value of $x$ where the parabola $J\left(x\right)$ reaches bottom. Sometimes (one might truthfully say “often”), however, such directapproaches are impossible. Maybe the derivative is just too complicated to solve (which can happen when the functions involved in $J\left(x\right)$ are extremely nonlinear). Or maybe the derivative of $J\left(x\right)$ cannot be calculated precisely from the available data, and instead must beestimated from a noisy data stream.

One alternative to the direct solution technique is an adaptive method called “steepest descent”(when the goal is to minimize), and called “hill climbing” (when the goal is to maximize).Steepest descent begins with an initial guess of the location of the minimum, evaluates which direction from this estimate is most steeply “downhill,”and then makes a new estimate along the downhill direction. Similarly, hill climbing begins with an initialguess of the location of the maximum, evaluates which direction climbs the most rapidly, and then makes a new estimate along theuphill direction. With luck, the new estimates are better than the old. The process repeats, hopefully getting closer to theoptimal location at each step. The key ingredient in this procedure is to recognize that the uphilldirection is defined by the gradient evaluated at the current location, while the downhill direction is the negative of this gradient.

are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
what is hormones?
Wellington
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