<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Natural sciences

Ecosystems and the environmental balance

Educator section


(a) A forest is a stretch of land that is covered with dense trees, shrubs, ferns, etc. and animals. These plants and animals live together in the dense bushes.

Assignment 1:

f) tree (producer)

mouse (primary consumer)

owl (secondary consumer)

jackal (tertiary consumer)

Leaner section


1. Introduction

All living things on earth and the way in which they influence (or are influenced by) the environment form an ecosystem.

The word ecosystem is derived from the Greek word "oikos", which means house or household. Just like members of a family live together, support and influence each other and the environment (and are in turn affected and influenced by it), so organisms live together, reproduce and are dependent on each other for food. They have a close relationship with the soil, sun, water and air.

Activity: to understand clearly what an ecosystem is [lo 1.3]

Let's study an example of an ecosystem:

(a) What is a forest?____________________________________________________








A forest is much more than a large area of land covered with trees. Shrubs, vines, ferns, mosses and toadstools live in the shade of trees. The forest also swarms with birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects. A forest is therefore all these plants and animals living together.

The animals depend on plants for food, while plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and minerals to make food for themselves and other organisms in the forest.

The living organisms (plants and animals) together with the non-living environment (air, water, sun and soil) constitute an ecosystem.

(b) Tabulate an example of each of the following found in a forest.

Species My example of. . .
bird __________________________
mammal ________________________
reptile ________________________
insect ________________________
amphibian ________________________

(c) Now sketch these five examples in the drawing to complete it!

(d) The Ecosystem concept

The organism-environment interaction leads to the ecosystem concept, elaborating the interaction between matter, energy and organism.

An ecosystem

(e) How big is an ecosystem?

An ecosystem can be of any size, from a puddle of water on the pavement to the entire rain forest in the Amazon or an even larger area.

A forest with its trees, plants, insects, birds, etc., is an ecosystem of certain kinds of organisms that occupy a certain environment. On the other hand, a rock in the shade of a forest with its mosses and other rock plants, insect larvae and centipedes, is also an ecosystem. The system is therefore integrated, with parts that are intimately related to one another. Anything affecting a part of the system will also affect the rest.

Assignment 1:

(f) Study the sketch of the forest ecosystem below:

Name the:

producer: _____________________________________________________________

primary consumer: _____________________________________________________

secondary consumer: ___________________________________________________

tertiary consumer: ______________________________________________________

Primary means first.

Secondary means second or less important.

Tertiary means the third in this case.

2. The ecosystem

is the living organisms together with the ____________________________________

indivisibly linked and mutually interactive.

The living part can be divided into:

(a) food producers - mainly green plants

(b) food consumers - which are macro consumers (animals which eat other organisms)


decomposers (bacteria or fungi which break up dead organisms)


Learning Outcome 1: The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

Assessment Standard 1.3: We know this when the learner evaluates data and gives feedback on findings.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11079/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Natural sciences grade 6' conversation and receive update notifications?