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Comparative studies on functionally referential alarm systems

Predator specific alarm systems are proposed to be beneficial in primates that face multiple predator types and that can respond with different survival strategies (Macedonia&Evans 1993). Other species that face similar ecological conditions should have similar alarm systems. Small songbirds have two different anti-predator strategies, either mobbing a perched predator or hiding from one in flight, and have developed two distinct alarm calls for each type of behavior (Marler 1955). These birds give a high frequency “seet” or a short “chink” in response to an airborne or perched predator respectively; this is similar to the system used by the white-faced capuchins. Another bird species, chickens ( Gallus gallus), also gives distinct aerial and terrestrial alarm calls (Evans 1993). Chickens will crouch down or run for cover in response to the aerial call, but stand up tall in a vigilant stance when responding to a terrestrial call (Evans 1993). All of these species can respond to different types of predators in distinct ways; consequently, they have evolved functionally referential alarm systems. Cooperatively breeding meerkats have developed three distinct alarm calls, in a system similar to that of vervet monkeys. The meerkats always respond to an aerial call by running to a bolthole, but scan the area and then move to a different burrow system in response to a terrestrial alarm call (Manser 2001). In response to their “recruitment” call, which seems to be used for snakes, meerkats approach the source of the call cautiously and inspect the area (Manser 2001). As with the vervet monkeys, the meerkats have evolved a specific alarm system because certain anti-predator responses are more beneficial in a specific case (Manser 2001).

Other semi-arboreal and semi-terrestrial primates, such as tamarins and the red-tailed sportive lemurs, seem to have developed predator-specific alarm systems for the same reason (Kirchhof et al, 2006; Fichtel 2007). Kirchhof observed that mustached and saddleback tamarins’ alarm calls do correspond with certain predators by measuring the time spent searching in a certain direction by the listening tamarins. He found tamarins spent a significantly longer amount of time looking up in response to the aerial alarm call but a much longer time looking down in response to the terrestrial alarm call (Kirchhof et al, 2006). Putty-nosed monkeys are another species that uses two distinct calls, pyows and hacks (Arnold et al, 2006). The monkeys combine these two calls in various ways; however, eagles always elicit hacks first and more often. The Putty-nosed monkeys use the different sequences of the distinct calls to determine whether an aerial or terrestrial predator is attacking (Arnold et al, 2008). These alarm calls are predator specific which is advantageous to species with multiple escape strategies.

Alarm calls that indicate urgency are also adaptive

In species with only one escape strategy, identifying the predator has less value. Instead, it might be more helpful to evolve a communication system that conveys the degree of risk. A primate that can only escape to the trees for safety would prefer to know whether the predator is fifty feet away or in the bush next to him, but not necessarily which type of monkey-eater he must avoid. Chacma baboons face a wide range of predators but do not have multiple escape strategies. The baboons use the same calls, which range from tonal clear barks to harsher alarm barks for all types of predators, but vary the calls to convey the degree of risk (Fischer et al, 2001; Cheney et al, 2003). The baboons respond differently based on the duration and frequency of the calls, simply ignoring any intermediate calls that are not urgent alarm calls (Fischer et al, 2001). One of the first clues that this system may be based on risk determination is the increase in alarm calls when the group is more widely dispersed (Rendall et al, 2000). This is expected; a greater area of dispersal increases the danger to each individual, representing heightened danger. In addition, chacma baboons may give a few scattered alarm barks when confronted with relatively low risk predators such as hyenas or wild dogs (Cheney et al, 2003). Lions, however, always elicit frequent harsh alarm barks from more than one baboon because they pose a greater risk (Cheney et al, 2003). The most frequent alarm calling occurs when baboons cross water infested with crocodiles. This is a high risk situation for the chacma baboons, thus it makes sense that a call system based on the degree of the threat would cause the baboons to bark most frequently in response to their riskiest predator (Cheney et al, 2003). The baboons even barked in response to harmless objects that could potentially be crocodiles, such as floating elephant dung or submerged hippos (Cheney et al, 2003). The heightened sensitivity and increase in call frequency in response to a more threatening predator confirms that their system is meant to demonstrate the relative urgency of the threat, not the particular predator (Fischer et al, 2001).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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