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Sosiale wetenskappe: geskiedenis

Graad 7

Die mfecane verskuif grense

Module 2

Wat was die oorsake van die mfecane?

Met slegs enkele dokumente en min bewyse is dit moeilik om geskiedkundige gebeure te rekonstrueer, en selfs moeiliker om dit te verstaan en te verduidelik. Gevolglik het historici verskillende sienings. Ons noem dit teorieë of verklarings vir sodanige gebeure.

Julle begryp dus dat dit moeilik is om te verduidelik wat die Mfecane was. Sommige historici sien die Mfecane as iets wat veroorsaak is deur gebeure, hoofsaaklik:

  • ‘n stryd om mag, veral in KwaZulu-Natal;
  • ‘n wedywering om handelsgeleenthede; en
  • die invloed van die omgewing.

Ons gaan nou ondersoek instel na watter betroubare bronne oor die Mfecane bestaan om hierdie menings te ondersteun.

1. DIE STRYD OM MAG IN KWAZULU-NATAL

Die voortdurende oorlogvoering en veranderings wat ingetree het in die laaste helfte van die agtiende eeu, het gelei tot die ontstaan van nuwe, magtige hoof- of kapteinskappe.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om bewus te wees van verskillende sieninge oor die oorsake van die mfecane

[lu 2.3]

  • Lees meegaande artikel aan die hand van die volgende kaart, en verduidelik dan waarom die Sotho-mense na die gebeure verwys het as Difaqane , of te wel gedwonge verhuising .

BRON

Die Mthethwa onder Dingiswayo het begin om polities en kommersieel uit te brei, wat hulle in staat gestel het om volledig beheer uit te oefen oor die laeland-kusvlakte en die handel met Algoabaai. Dingiswayo het ook sy mag uitgebrei na die binneland. In die noorde het Dingiswayo die Ngwane verslaan. Die enigste oorblywende magte wat nie oorgegee het aan Dingiswayo nie, was Zwide en sy Ndwandwe. Die heersers wat verslaan is, is toegelaat om hul kapteinskappe voort te sit, maar hulle was ondergeskik aan die koninkryk van die Mthethwa.

Uiteindelik het oorlog in 1817 uitgebreek tussen die Mthethwa en die Ndwandwe. Die aanvallende weermag van die Mthethwa is suidwaarts verdryf nadat Dingiswayo gevange geneem en om die lewe gebring is. Die wanorde wat onder die Mthethwa geheers het, het die weg gebaan vir ’n nuwe, en selfs magtiger leier – Shaka.

Shaka het as jong man aangesluit by die stam van Dingiswayo. Hy het spoedig bekendheid verwerf vir sy besondere leierseienskappe en sy dapperheid. Uit dankbaarheid vir sy dienste het Dingiswayo hom die hoof van die Zoeloestam gemaak, hoewel Shaka onder normale omstandighede nie ‘n opperhoof sou geword het nie.

Die dood van Dingiswayo het vir Shaka die geleentheid gebied om die mag oor te neem. Daar was egter twee ernstige bedreigings vir sy heerskappy: die moontlikheid dat die Mthethwa sou versplinter, en die militêre krag en selfvertroue van Zwide.

Shaka het besondere politieke vaardighede getoon in ‘n poging om die ondersteuning van die koninklike familie van die Mthethwa te bekom, en het voortgegaan om die lede van die koninklike families en kapteinskappe wat sy heerskappy teengestaan het, te verslaan en te vervang. Hy het nou regeer oor al die stamme noord van die Tugela. Ndwandwe was die enigste wat sy onafhanklikheid behou het.

Duisende mense het gevlug namate Shaka sy grondgebied en sy mag deur oorlogvoering uitgebrei het. Dit het ’n kettingreaksie van plundery en chaos tot gevolg gehad soos die vlugtelinge die grondgebied van ander stamme betree het. Die opkoms van Shaka het dus bygedra tot die Mfecane.

2. MEDEDINGING OM DIE HANDEL

Finansiële oorwegings het waarskynlik ook veroorsaak dat gedwonge verhuising plaasgevind het. Hier is vier voorbeelde daarvan:

(a) Die Britse regering het arbeiders nodig gehad, veral na die aankoms van die Britse setlaars in 1829.

(b) In die gebied oorkant die Oranjerivier het stamme soos die Griekwas en die Taung hulself skuldiggemaak aan slawehandel.

(c) Die Portugese regering in Delagoabaai het ook handel gedryf in slawe. Swart mense moes hul woonplekke verlaat en vlug om te verhoed dat hulle as slawe gevange geneem word. Dit het gelei tot onrus, konflik en vernietiging tussen hulle.

(d) Daar het sterk mededinging om beheer van die ivoorhandel geheers. Die sterker groepe het die kleiner groepe aangeval in ‘n poging om die meeste ivoor te bekom.

  • Deesdae trek duisende mense elke jaar na ons stede. Waarom?

3. INVLOED VAN DIE OMGEWING

n Ander moontlike oorsaak van die Mfecane was moontlik die invloed wat die omgewing gehad het op mense en gebeure. ‘n Goeie reënval het goeie oeste meegebring.

Gedurende droogtetye was die reënval gering en die oeste was swak. Gevolglik het baie mense na gebiede getrek waar daar ‘n hoër reënval was.

Soms het boere onder mekaar baklei in ‘n poging om die beste landbougrond te verkry.

  • Bestudeer die reënvalkaart en onderstreep die korrekte antwoorde:

a) Veeboere het die (westelike; oostelike; noordelike) deel van die land die geskikste gevind vanweë die hoë reënval en die welige grasvlaktes.

b) In die droë dele het hulle gewoonlik met (gewasse, beeste, skape, bokke) geboer omdat water skaars was.

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om redes vir die oorsake en gevolge van die mfecane te verskaf

[lu 2.2]

Soos aangetoon, was die Mfecane ‘n ingewikkelde “raaisel” van verweefde oorsake en gevolge.

  • Die eerste deel van die raaisel dui op twee oorsake van die Mfecane.
  • Wat was die gevolge hiervan?

Assessering

Assesseringstandaarde(ASe)
LEERUITKOMS 1: HISTORIESE ONDERSOEK – Die leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om die verlede en die hede te ondersoek
1.1 Bekom die bronne
1.2 Gebruik die bronne
1.3 Kommunikeer inligting uit bronne (verslaggewing)
LEERUITKOMS 2: HISTORIESE BEGRIP (TYD) – Die leerder is in staat om geskiedkundige kennis en begrip te toon
2.1 Verstaan kronologie en tyd
2.2 Verskaf redes waarom ‘n historiese gebeurtenis plaasgevind het (oorsake, gevolge)
2.3 Onderskei tussen verskillende tydperke (ooreenkomste, verskille)

Questions & Answers

any tip for igcse economics exam?pls
Stacey Reply
well
The
What is a market
Divine Reply
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
price of the related goods 2 price of the given commodity 3 income of the consumer 4 taste and preference 5 expectation in the future price
John
pls the taste and preference
Nas
explain briefly
Nas
a consumer taste and preference commodity changes for a time the man becomes
John
sorry sorry
John
is when the price of a commodity becomes high and can't afford example Samsung instead of iPhone
John
consumers who have high intense for goods will purchase the goods even if the price of that commodity increases because he or she preferred that commodity.people will be prefer iphone as its price increase
Yussif
as usual bad taste of preference is when a consumer regrets from one commodity to another in terms of the price
John
thanks alot
Nas
you're welcome
John
#Preference; #Income #Test
Dereje
#price Of Commodity #Income #Taste #Preference
Dereje
#Market is The Place Where Buyers And Sellers Are Exchanging Their Goods And service. #
Dereje
difference between macro and micro economics
Lawrence
Microeconomic Study about individual consumers market But Macroeconomis Study General economic Process Such As #Aggregate Demand #Aggregate Supples #GDp= #GNp
Dereje
nice so can u run down a brife discussion on GDP
Lawrence
good
Chinex
pls can someone differentiate between the perfectly elastic, perfectly inelastic and unitary
yhar Reply
and then again pls what are the types of elasticity, the methods of calculating it thank u
yhar
Perfectly inelastic is when the coefficient is equal to zero Unitary is when the coefficient is equal to one But am not sure if we have perfectly inelastic
John
I'm kind off confuse abt the PED, IED and co are they the types of elasticity we've
yhar
Yh the types are price elasticity cross and income elasticity of demand
John
do we've specific formulaes to calculate for each of them
yhar
yes. PED. changes in quantity demanded divided by changes in price
Vealmurugan
so pls what's the general name given to unitary, elastic n inelastic ? are the names given to the final result after doing the calculations?
yhar
P2-P1÷P1×100or Q2-Q1×Q1×100 PED
John
***tutor2u.net/economics/reference/price-elasticity-of-demand
Vealmurugan
They are elasticity coefficient
John
@John I don't get u well pls
yhar
whichone
John
P2-P1÷P1×100or Q2-Q1×Q1×100 PED @john pls tis is what m talking abt
yhar
Yh is the formula for PED
John
Pls are you having a for PED
John
thank u very
yhar
dy
Jobang
what is economics
Tayyeb
economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative use
John
is a science which study human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses
Divine
yes this is because economic provide a body of knowledge on human economic principles under theories and these theories can be verified with real world data using science method in other words it was scientific method in arriving at solution identification of problem or basic data collection among
John
unitary ElasticWhen Elasticty =1 Perfectily Elastic When 0<1 inelastic when 0>
Dereje
Pls is anyone having the NovDec questions?
John Reply
No
Emmanuel
what is micro economics
Rakesh Reply
What is PPF
Endam
Production Possibility Frontier
John
It refers to a curve or graph which shows the possible contributions of maximum alternative of commodity that can be produced in an economy
John
thanks
Endam
Thanks John talkx of defination pls
Endam
I don't get you
John
guys Any One With Novdec Questions 2019?
Diana Reply
what did Adam Smith introduce?
Sunday Reply
what is supply
Awunyo Reply
supply relationship shows that the higher the price, the higher the quantity supplied. 
SDADY
what are the dissadvantages of large scale production
Atanga Reply
depreciate of quality taste
Kosiso
Some of the Disadvantages are:- 1. Production not according to individual Tastes 2. Monopoly 3. Not Flexible 4. Over-Production 5. Heavy loss and Dislocation 6. Decline of Cottage and Small Scale Industries 7. Adverse Effect on Labourers 8. Unequal Distribution of Wealth
Asrar
And what can be the advantages too
Enow
1.adequate satisfaction 2.reduce importation
Yussif
Reduce importation how pls
Enow
the country will have enough products.this will reduce the level of government expenditure on imported goods especially
Yussif
Some of Advantage 1. Division of Labour 2. More Production 3. Use of machines 4. Low Cost of Production 5. Standard Goods 6. Advertisements and Salesmanship
Asrar
Some of its disadvantages are : (i) Less Supervision (ii) Individual tastes ignored (iii) Absence of Personal Element (iv) Possibility of depression (v) Dependence on Foreign Markets (vi) International complications and war (vii) Cut-throat Competition (viii) Less Adaptability
Kalu
what are the types of trade cycle
Kenny Reply
depression
DG
explain the following 1.supply 2.mobility of labour 3.why the demand slope downward from left to right
Theresa Reply
Mobility of labor is a the movement of labor (people) geographically or occupationally
Olotu
What is Supply
Kamodu Reply
Supply is quantity of a comodity which is presented in the market for sell on fixed price
Mahwish
Supply is quality of a goods the seller are willing to deliver at the particular price
Chinex
what is economy
Jacob Reply
Economy is defined as the efficient use of resources
Thomas
explain merits and demerit of economic
Portia
What is Unemployment?
Prince Reply
unemployment is a situation where an individual is easily and ready to render services but resources are not available.
Phelix
Unemployment refers to individual who are employable and seeking a job but are unable to find a job or doesn't have a job. To find the unemployment rate in a given economy, you must divide the unemployed people by the total number of employed people in the work force. Indicator of economy's status.
elkanah
unemployment is The level of joblessness in an economy, often measured as a percentage of the workforce. Unemployment was reported at 5.2% in May, up from 4.9% in April
ANNOR
Pls wat are the factors that influence unemployment
Olotu
just trying ⚠ factors that affect unemployment - the rate of imported inflation - interest rates - levels of investment
Wallace
unemployment is a situation where country labour Force who are active capable and are really searching for or willing to work at assistant wage rates but cannot find job
John
working age ppl who have no job for a period of time. there are different types of unemployment like structural, fictional, seasonal n etc. there is a formula to calculate it. n have factors causes this.
Vealmurugan
factors that influence on employment 1 high population growth growth as against low Industries growth rates 2 lack of skills or mass irritracy 3 government policies such as minimum wage trade liberalization and high taxation 4 initial capital requirements
John
I'm an economics student, what I do now will make my life a success,
mostafiz
Thank you
Tantoh
😂😂😂😂😂😂😂☺☺☺🙂🙂🙂🙂🙂🙂🙂🙂🙂🙂🙂👩‍🎓👩‍🎓👩‍🎓👩‍🎓👩‍🎓👩‍🎓
Leta
what is difference between economic growth and economic development?( I want unique &brief answer)?
Leta
unemployment is when legitimate labour Force are not engaged in the economy.
Lawrence
economic growth is the already settled growth of the economy and National income can be used in verification of that while economic development is the process of improvement in an economy
Lawrence
what is rational behavior
Aaron Reply
James what is nationalisation
Awunyo
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Source:  OpenStax, Geskiedenis graad 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11022/1.1
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