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Sosiale wetenskappe: geskiedenis

Graad 8

Grond en mag

Module 8

Industrialisasie in suid-afrika

Suid-Afrika beskik oor ‘n geweldige mineralerykdom. Goud, diamante en platinum en noodsaaklike basismetale soos koper, tin, yster, lood en sink word ontgin. Die mynbou-sektor is dus ‘n belangrike bron van werkskepping. Die enigste ander land met so ‘n omvangryke verskeidenheid minerale en metale soos Suid-Afrika is die uitgestrekte Rusland.

Die Ontdekking van Goud en Diamante in Sa

Teen die middel van die negentiende eeu was die gebiede wat Brittanje in Suid-Afrika gekoloniseer het, vir die Britte ‘n ekonomiese las. Droogtes in die Kaapkolonie; gevegte in die Oranje-Vrystaat met die Basoeto’s en swak binnelandse markte in die ou ZAR (Transvaal) het daartoe gelei dat die Britte hul beheer oor hierdie gebiede beëindig het deur die ondertekening van die Sandrivierkonvensie in 1852 met Transvaal en die Bloemfonteinkonvensie in 1854 met die OVS.

Die ontdekking van goud in 1868, noord van die Limpopo-rivier, by Tati het aanvanklik nie veel aandag getrek nie, want in 1867 is die eerste diamant naby Hopetown ontdek. Hierdie diamante was spoeldiamante, wat in die spoelgrond langs die riviere aangetref is.

Weerskante van die Vaalrivier is meer diamante gevind wat gelei het tot ‘n grootskaalse instroming van delwers. Die delwers kon nie met Pretorius, die president van die ZAR oor hul regte ooreenkom nie en het hul eie delwersrepubliek by Klipdrif uitgeroep.

In 1870 en 1871 is diamante verder van die Vaalrivier af, eers by Dutoitspan (later Kimberley) en toe by Vooruitzicht ontdek. Hierdie droë delwerye het bekend geword as die grootste diamantvondste in die wêreld en buitelanders het nou op die gebied toegesak. Konflik tussen die verskillende aanspraakmakers op die diamant­grond, naamlik die republieke, die kolonies en die inboorlingkaptein was onvermydelik.

Alhoewel J.H. Davis al in 1852 die eerste goud in die bekende Witwatersrand op ‘n plaas naby Krugersdorp ontdek het, het die ZAR-regering hom gedwing om stil te bly daaroor. Verskillende ander goudvondste is gemaak, soos die vonds van Walker en Harrison op die plaas Langlaagte. Eers in 1886 was dit duidelik dat hierdie vonds die hoofgoudrif van die Witwatersrand was.

Die dorp Johannesburg het ontwikkel op die plaas Randjeslaagte. Transportryers kon nie tred hou met die vervoer van mense en goedere nie, gevolglik is spoorlyne aangelê. Johannesburg is in 1892 deur middel van ‘n spoorlyn verbind met Kaapstad en in 1895 met Durban.

Aktiwiteit 1: tydoefening

  • Trek nou ‘n TYDLYN waarop jy die gebeure op die Suid-Afrikaanse diamant- en goudvelde wat hier bespreek is, aandui. Gaan soos volg te werk:

a) Skryf die woord TYDLYN en waaroor die tydlyn handel, bo-aan.

b) RANGSKIK eers die DATUMS in CHRONOLOGIESE VOLGORDE.

c) SKRYF nou die DATUMS onder mekaar neer.

d) VUL nou slegs die GEBEURE wat op die datums betrekking het, langs elke datum in. Sorg vir volledigheid.

LU 1.2 LU 1.4 LU 1.5 LU 2.1 LU 2.2

Aktiwiteit 2: bron a en b

  • Lees die volgende twee bronne noukeurig deur en beantwoord dan die vrae wat volg.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geskiedenis graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11043/1.1
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