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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 8

Natuurlike hulpbronne

Module 7

Energie en water

Energie en water

Energie

  • In die breë gesien, word energie in Suid-Afrika ondoeltreffend en onvolhoubaar verbruik. Die land se geraamde bydrae van twee persent tot die wêreld se koolstofdioksiedproduksie dra buite verhouding hoog by tot die kweekhuis-effek en mensgemaakte klimaatsveranderinge. Volgens die VN is Suid-Afrika per capita die wêreld se hoogste vrysteller van koolstofdioksied. Die land se algemene energiebeleid moenie gerig wees op die opwekking en verkoop van meer krag nie, omdat dit tot meer besoedeling sal lei. Die aanvraag na elektrisiteit moet eerder beter beheer word om uiteindelik die totale verbruik te verminder.
  • Meer as ‘n driekwart van Suid-Afrika se energie word van steenkool verkry, met die gevolg dat die land se afhanklikheid van hierdie nie-hernubare hulpbron van die hoogste in die wêreld is. Suid-Afrika beskik egter oor enorme steenkoolreserwes van oor die 58 000 miljoen ton. Ongeveer die helfte van die steenkool wat plaaslik ontgin word word gebruik vir kragopwekking. ‘n Kwart word gebruik om vloeibare sintetiese brandstowwe deur middel van die Sasolproses te vervaardig, terwyl die ander kwart direk deur nywerhede of in huise verbrand word om hitte te verskaf.
  • Al die groot steenkool-kragstasies is binne ‘n radius van 150 km van die grootste steenkolmyne in die Oos-Transvaalse Hoëveld geleë. Dit lei tot lugbesoedeling wat volgens sekere wetenskaplikes gelyk is aan die ergste in die wêreld.
  • Lugbesoedeling hou uiters nadelige gevolge vir die omgewing in, veral aangesien ‘n aansienlike deel van Suid-Afrika se vrugbare landbougrond en kommersiële, plantasies, sowel as sowat 25 persent van sy oppervlak-afloopwater, binne hierdie streek val. Direkte steenkoolverbranding deur nywerhede en swart dorpsgebiede wat nie elektrisiteit het nie, veroorsaak ook aansienlike lugbesoedeling, wat op sy beurt weer bydra tot omgewings- en gesondheidsprobleme.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om konsepte te verklaar wat verband hou met energie

[lu 1.1]

1. Identifiseer die drie natuurlike hulpbronne wat volgens die teks nie-volhoubaar gebruik word en omskryf hul betekenisse:

2. Hoekom is dit so dat die helfte van die bevolking van SA van brandhout as ‘n energiebron afhanklik is?

3. Verduidelik die volgende:

  • Sintetiese brandstof
  • Kweekhuiseffek
  • Volhoubaarheid
  • Mensgemaakte klimaatsveranderinge

‘n Groot omgewingsprobleem is die feit dat nagenoeg die helfte van Suid-Afrika se bevolking tans aangewese is op die nie-volhoubare verbruik van brandhout as energiebron. As die huidige verbruik voortduur, kan alle natuurlike bosse in die voormalige tuislande teen die jaar 2020 gestroop wees.

Hoewel kernkrag as ‘n potensiële kragbron steun geniet, is elektrisiteit wat by die Koeberg-kragsentrale opgewek word duurder as dié in die nasionale netwerk.

Daar is ook nog groot, onopgeloste omgewingsprobleme wat betref die berging van gevaarlike kernafval.

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om maniere te vind om hulpbronverbruik te verminder

[lu 3.3]

1. Bespreek die volgende stelling:

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11035/1.1
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