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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Crime and Criminal Justice in the United States. Robert J. Sampson; Janet L. Lauritsen. Crime and Justice , Vol. 21, Ethnicity, Crime and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives. (1997), pp. 311-374.

Study Finds Racial Disparity in Executions - Newsweek Health - MSNBC.com. (External Link) Retrieved 8/1/2007

Racial Classification in Criminology: The Reproduction of Racialized Crime. Jeanette Covington. Sociological Forum , Vol. 10, No. 4, Special Issue: African Americans and Sociology: A Critical Analysis. (Dec., 1995), pp. 547-568.

Racial Discrimination in Criminal Sentencing: A Critical Evaluation of the Evidence with Additional Evidence on the Death Penalty. Gary Kleck. American Sociological Review , Vol. 46, No. 6. (Dec., 1981), pp. 783-805.

Racism on Trial: New Evidence to Explain the Racial Composition of Prisons in the United States. Patrick A. Langan. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-), Vol. 76, No. 3. (Autumn, 1985), pp. 666-683.

Retrying Race. Anthony V. Alfieri. Michigan Law Review , Vol. 101, No. 5, Colloquium: Retrying Race. (Mar., 2003), pp. 1141-1200.

The Color of Crime: The Case against Race-Based Suspect Descriptions. Bela August Walker. Columbia Law Review , Vol. 103, No. 3. (Apr., 2003), pp. 662-688.

The Limits of Justice: Finding Fault in the Criminal Law. Alan Norrie. The Modern Law Review , Vol. 59, No. 4. (Jul., 1996), pp. 540-556.

African americans

A Comparison of European and African-Based Psychologies and Their Implications for African American College Student Development. Vanessa D. Johnson. Journal of Black Studies , Vol. 33, No. 6. (Jul., 2003), pp. 817-829.

African American Diversity and the Study of Folklore. John W. Roberts. Western Folklore , Vol. 52, No. 2/4, Theorizing Folklore: Toward New Perspectives on the Politics of Culture. (Apr. - Oct., 1993), pp. 157-171.

American Experience | The Murder of Emmett Till. (External Link) . 6/22/2005 2:03:54 PM

African American Males in Dance, Music, Theater, and Film. I. Peter Ukpokodu. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , Vol. 569, The African American Male in American Life and Thought. (May, 2000), pp. 71-85.

African Americans’ Congressional Careers and the Democratic House Delegation. Alan Gerber. The Journal of Politics , Vol. 58, No. 3. (Aug., 1996), pp. 831-845.

Langston Hughes—”A Dream Deferred” . This is a video clip from the Langston Hughes program in the Voices&Visions video series from the Annenberg Media Multimedia Collection.. (External Link) . Retrieved 12/09/2007, 1:41:30 PM

African Art and African-American Identity. Eric Robertson. African Arts , Vol. 27, No. 2. (Apr., 1994), pp. 1+6+8+10.

African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis. Joseph A. Baldwin. Journal of Black Studies , Vol. 16, No. 3. (Mar., 1986), pp. 235-249.

African Immigrants in the United States are the Nation’s Most Highly Educated Group. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education , No. 26. (Winter, 1999-2000), pp. 60-61..

African-American Odyssey. The Library of Congress. (External Link) . Retrieved (1 of 5) 5/21/2007 5:46:25 PM

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Minority studies: a brief sociological text. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11183/1.13
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