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Research-based best practices

  • Teach reading for authentic, meaning-making literacy experiences: for pleasure, to be informed, and to perform a task.
  • Use high-quality literature.
  • Integrate a comprehensive word study/phonics program into reading/writing instruction.
  • Use multiple texts that link and expand concepts.
  • Balance teacher-and student-led discussions.
  • Build a whole-class community that emphasizes important concepts and builds background knowledge.
  • Work with students in small groups while other students read and write about what they have read.
  • Give students plenty of time to read in class.
  • Give students direct instruction in decoding and comprehension strategies that promote independent reading. Balance directinstruction, guided instruction, and independent learning.
  • Use a variety of assessment techniques to inform instruction.

(Adapted from Best Practices in Literacy Instruction , edited by Lesley Morrow, Linda Gambrell and Micael Pressley.)

Adult literacy programs

The greatest literacy programs engage local leaders in "each-one-teach-one" settings and a wide network of "literacy circles"or "literacy committees." These "literacy circles and committees" adopt program structures that rely on a particular technique towards literacyand depend on rotating leadership, mandatory attendance, and assessment.

These structures rely on the mobilization of individuals, groups, agencies, religious bodies, and non-governmentalorganizations (NGOs) to participate actively in mass literacy as volunteer teachers, learners, sponsors, or organizers.

It is wise to train graduate students, who are teacher interns, to be literacy educators. The benefits are several, but the most importantreason is that you enlist a cadre of young teachers who value the community as a vital resource and who have spent a considerable amount of time amongst thepeople. They learn about families, social and economic pressures, and theimpediments to and incentives for education.

Each-One-Teach-One Program Elements

There are four general principles governing adult literacy:

  • Picture-word synthesis utilizes the teaching concept that starts with what adults know and adds an association with the unknown - the"code" they can break by progressing from pictures to words.
  • "Syllabic analysis of words" breaks down the word into syllables in order to increase the ability for adults.
  • The use of primers with pictures and graded material in order of difficulty. Such primers MUST have identified the local, practicalproblems that adults face, for which literacy (and numeracy) is the solution. Content would include issues of personal health andhappiness, economic and social issues, government regulations, how to start or grow a business, how to negotiate a loan or to compare prices,how to get a job, how to have a happy family, etc.
  • The integration of reading and writing exercises into the above. Such exercises must be accompanied by charts, posters, (and otheraudio-visual aids), newspapers, and follow-up reading. Important, too, is the use of mobile libraries so that reading is a constantdiscovery and an opportunity for adults to become life-long learners.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Course 5: educating for civil societies. OpenStax CNX. Mar 08, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10335/1.10
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