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Role models (movie stars and sports figures) have engaged in a public relations campaign to restore pride and dignity toHIV-infected people ("I am Positive"). While such a campaign may be essential to ensure civil rights and active participation in society, anunintended consequence may be the elevation of one's HIV-Positive diagnosis as a status symbol.

Addressing resistance to condom use - 2 studies

There are several HIV-AIDS programs designed to change behavior. Some focus on facts where little information isavailable. Others try to infuse frightening messages about HIV-AIDS. Still others integrate the personal elements (showing the effect ofknowing someone with AIDS on one's own behavior, for example).

Each HIV-AIDS program must be designed with evaluation techniques that use consistently accurate appropriatedependent and independent variables and analyses that can quantify the connection between education programs and changes in behavior.

As was shown in the Topic: "Resistance to Condom Use," attempts have been made to reduce feelings of invulnerability so that youngpeople do not engage in unprotected sex. The key is to integrate factual material with personal identification and engagement in order for the lessons to rundeep.

Two studies have been conducted with young people to determine the clues and strategies for helping them change their behavior.We have chosen to focus on these two approaches to HIV-AIDS education because they integrate personal engagement and good teaching. We stressthat the creative presentation of programmatic materials is as important as the factual presentation of materials.

In the first approach , researchers focused on whether or not young people really "knew" about a person's HIV status, based upon a look atphotographs and that person's brief statement about his/her sexual history. Many students were unable to produce an accurate score of HIVNegative and HIV Positive people. This study was based upon the idea that a student's sudden confrontation with his or her failed perceptions wouldchange behavior. In this case, such a change would result in not relying on appearance and a statement from a potential partner. Protection would thentake place as a matter of course.

It has been suggested that the study using photographs take on longitudinal elements by following the lives of young people picturedin the photographs for several months or years. In this way, several variables can be studied, including: a) a longer term analysis of thestaying power of the exercise itself - is it continuing to work? b) a reinforcing of the point, such that subsequent groups of studentsparticipating in the photo-identification project could see the deterioration in the lives, over time, of those infected by HIV. Aseemingly bright and beautiful face one day then turns into the face of disease.

In the second approach , researchers focused on negative health events as a compelling way of demonstrating a willingness to usecondoms. In such cases, young people spoke about the STDs contracted. In addition, a 20-minute video was shown. Studies have shown an initialcommitment to use protection, though it is not entirely clear whether or not the pressures surrounding participation in the study itself may not havehad an effect on young people, who may feel pressured to provide the "appropriate," rather than the truthful, answer.

Both approaches were followed up by questionnaires at three and six months asking whether or not the young people had been sexuallyactive in the intervening time and the degree to which they intend to use condoms.


The intention of both studies is to reduce feelings of invulnerability and increase condom use. Both approaches showed demonstrable effects in reducing feelings of invulnerability andincreasing the intention to use condoms. The results of this "stand-alone" intervention may be limited to some degree. The message remains. Theteenagers' lack of ability to guess accurately the health of those in the photographs translated into a sense that: a) they may be wrong; b) thepicture they viewed could, perhaps, one day be of them.

Future studies are being tested to overcome obstacles to condom use that extend beyond the perceptions of teenagers -availability in numbers and ease of access, social stigmas, myths about condoms, for example.

The post study is as important as the study itself, for the questionnaire itself is explicit about questions directed to youngpeople about their own sexual behavior. These private issues are public insofar as the young people are participating in such a study and thefollow-up surveys, which acknowledge their sexual activity. (We do not know what the drop-out rate is to determine the degree to which fear of suchquestions may have frightened some participants away.)

A conclusion that can be made, however (based upon a larger body of research in adolescent psychology) is that threatening orfrightening images or programs showing the connection to and consequences of a particular behavior (in this case, unprotected sex) have beenmarginally effective, but short term. Recent studies have shown success in mitigating cigarette smoking amongst teens by showing dirty lungs, but theeffects do not last because such messages are not personalized. Even more, some young people resist such messages as authoritarian and, therefore, goin the opposite direction - toward greater risk taking.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
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