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MathML also allows improvisation of an operator rendered by “mo” element. This generally makes use of other characters rendering elements such as “mi” or "mn" elements in addition to "mo" element and their combination with layout elements like “mfrac” and scripting elements (“msub”, “msup” etc.) Simply put, MathML treats an expression with a “mo” element at core and improvised by other elements - as an operator of class known as “embellished” operator.

Consider encoding for a differentiation operator "&DifferentialD;" . This operator when applied to a variable, say t, is represented as t In mathematics, however, t is itself considered to be an operator. The whole block consisting of “mfrac” element is, thus, an embellished operator.

<m:mfrac> <m:mo> &DifferentialD; </m:mo> <m:mrow> <m:mo> &DifferentialD; </m:mo> <m:mi> x </m:mi> </m:mrow> </m:mfrac>

Additional attribute : default values

Default values to the attributes of “mo” element are set in accordance with the values contained in “operator dictionary”, which specifies “form”, “fence”, “stretchy”, “lspace” and “rspace” attributes for different operators. The renderer maintains an operator dictionary for most of the operators. W3C recommends a prototype of operator dictionary. These recommendations can be viewed at www.w3.org/TR/MathML2/appendixf.html . If the dictionary does not provide the value for the attribute, then attribute is set with default value as given here:

    Default values

  • form : set by position/context
  • fence : false
  • separator : false
  • lspace : thickmathspace
  • rspace : thickmathspace
  • stretchy : false
  • symmetric : true
  • maxsize : infinity
  • minsize : 1
  • largeop : false
  • movablelimits : false
  • accent : false

Managing space around operators

    Attribute value types

  • form : prefix | infix | postfix
  • lspace : number h-unit | namedspace
  • rspace : number h-unit | namedspace

The "form" attribute specifies whether an operator shall be rendered as "prefix" or "postfix" or "infix" operator. These form types determine space around the operator (left and right of it). Each form type is associated with two attributes ("lspace" and "rspace"), which implements its left space ("lspace") and right space ("rspace"). It is important to understand that form types are basically specification about space around operator and about its role with respect to other elements.

The default value of “form” attribute is set in accordance with three rules, involving "mrow" element. The token elements, including "mo" element, is composed within explicit or inferred "mrow" element. The position of an operator within the "mrow" in horizontal sequence determines the form type of the operator. If operator is the first element, then its form is inferred as "prefix"; if it is in the intermediate position, then its form is inferred as "infix”; and if it is in the end position, then its form is inferred as "postfix". Corresponding to each form, operator library specifies "lspace" and "rspace". It is, however, not necessary that each of the operator has all the three form types. The nature of operator determines the type of forms that a particular operator should be associated with. For example, "+" operator has entries for "prefix" and "infix", but not for "postfix" in the operator dictionary, because "postfix" form of "+" operator is not expected to be placed at the end of an expression.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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