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Rules for converting latex source

Connexions generally does a fine job translating LaTeX source code into the native Connexions mark-up language.However, one may need to adapt one's usual typesetting habits to work around a few idiosyncrasies.Firstly, one should not invest effort in adjusting page margins, line spacing, and fonts: the converter will strip away much ofthis veneer and replace it with the standard Connexions stylings. Equations will not be converted into graphics (as is commonin LaTeX to HTML conversion), but will rather be translated into MathML fonts that can be subsequently edited in Connexions.Do not include a title or abstract in your LaTeX document: these must be entered into Connexions manually when you set up your module.

The Connexions converter will not properly handle several LaTeX commands, as noted in the online help(http://cnx.org/help/UsingLaTeX ).

  • The \mbox command is not supported.
  • Nested tables are not supported.
  • LaTeX allows functions like \sqrt to be followed by asingle argument without brackets, e.g., \sqrt\pi .The Connexions translator misses this syntax; one instead needs to use brackets \sqrt{\pi}.

Future editing

You will likely want to make changes to your file at some point after you have uploaded the LaTeX document into Connexions.Should you edit the LaTeX document, then re-import, or should you alter the code directly in Connexions?If you have major mathematical edits, it may well be easiest to directly alter the LaTeX source. Beware that when you upload, any changes thatyou made to the previous version directly in Connexions will be overwritten. This is not such a concern if you can make all the edits you desiredirectly in LaTeX; however, this is not always the case: some things must be done in Connexions. (For example, see the comments aboutthe verbatim environment in "Incorporating code" below.)

Importing equations

We list a few sample equations to test the ability of the converter. For example, we have the Pythagorean Theorem, a 2 + b 2 = c 2 . This is an example of an inline equation, as is the integral 0 e - x 2 d x . The same integral can also be typeset as a displayed equation,

0 e - x 2 d x .

To typeset a matrix, use the LaTeX array environment:

A = a b c d .

(Note that the TeX \matrix command does not properly translate.)

A sample figure

shows the gap between consecutive prime numbers; see  . Beware: though the original image was drawn in precise vector graphics, theconverter has turned it into a bitmap of substantially diminished quality. Make sure you make your fonts large enough that they remain legible afterthe translation (unlike this figure). The translator also seems to place the figure directly after the reference,so the location of the figure in your Connexions document will generally differ from its placement in your LaTeX document (often for the better).Notice that if you choose the print the Connexions module as a .pdf file, the output will include the bitmapped image, rather than the sharpversion in your original document.

The gap between consecutive prime numbers.

A sample table

provides a list of the first seven Mersenne primes.(Beware: The Converter does not properly handle the caption command for tables. For example,if a caption precedes the table itself, as is the usual custom, the reference does not translate properly.Moreover, Connexions seems to draw boxes around all cells, regardless of the formatting in the LaTeX source.)

Mersenne primes.
k 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
k th Mersenne prime 3 7 31 127 8191 131071 524287

Incorporating code

You might naturally want to include small snippets of code with your report, which you would incorporate in LaTeX using the verbatimenvironment. For example, the following MATLAB commands produce the Mersenne prime datagiven in .


  pmer = p(isprime(2.^p-1));

  disp([[1:length(pmer)]' 2.^pmer-1])

At present, the Connexions LaTeX translator does not properly handle the verbatimenvironment, though this is expected to improve in an updated translator that will be available in a few months.In the meantime, it is best to leave code out of your LaTeX document, and paste it into Connexions manually as a<code>block.

Adding a bibliography

Connexions works well with LaTeX's bibliography tool, BibTeX. This tool allows you to create a .bibfile that contains a database of papers and books that you regularly reference.For example, this template is accompanied by a file called mybibfile.bibthat contains the three references cited here.You add citations in your LaTeX document using the \citecommand. See Lamport  for details.


This Connexions module describes work conducted as part of Rice University's VIGRE program, supported by National Science Foundationgrant DMS–0739420.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The art of the pfug. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10523/1.34
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