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Economic and management sciences

Grade 9

Sustainable growth and development

Module 8

Regional and international agreements

The existence of definite inequalities between the different regions is a characteristic of the South African economy. These inequalities are mainly attributable to the ethnic divisions that formed the basis of regional development policy during the previous political dispensation. Ethnic groupings were localised in particular regions in which so-called “homelands” were allocated to each group. Any particular group had to facilitate its social, political and economic development within the homeland allocated to it. This enforced segregation or separation and industrial decentralization placed whole communities in areas where their economic existence was threatened by disadvantageous results like poverty, underfeeding, overpopulation, crime, etc. Close to half of the black population were forced to remain in the homelands where the per capita income was less that a quarter of the national average.

Activity1: homelands policy [lo 2.1]

Identify the so-called former independent and self-governing states that existed under the previous dispensation and indicate the ethnic groups that had to find their political, social and economic refuge in each “homeland”.

  • Present the information that you have gathered:

The results of the above-mentioned regional development policy was stagnation of economic growth, a considerable decrease in investments and considerable lowering of real income over a number of decades. The economy was mainly dependent on exportation of minerals and the manufacturing sector was unable to provide the required employment opportunities that would supply the needs of the population. Because of the apartheid policies, there was very little economic co-operation with other African states and South Africa found itself in a situation of isolation.

The following was suggested to achieve and extend regional and international co-operation against this background, and in accordance with RDP objectives for a strong, dynamic and balanced economy:

a) Elimination of poverty , low wages and the extreme inequalities in wages and prosperity that resulted from the policies of the previous government;

b) Easing of economic imbalances and unequal development opportunities within and among the different South African regions;

c) Development of a progressive and balanced regional policy based on the principles of equity and mutual benefit; and

d) Integration into the international economy in such a way that viable and effective local manufacturing capacity and increased potential for exportation of manufactured goods would be sustained.

Sustainable growth and development are only possible if the above principles are incorporated in policy and budget structures. The democratic government will play a leading role in this and it is expected that a dynamic balance between government initiatives, the private sector and community development will be consistently pursued. Broadly representative institutions that will plan strategies for job creation and community development must be established to assist growth in local economies. Examples would include the raising of community development funds in the private sector, investment strategies, training, small business enterprises, agricultural development, etc. If necessary, the government could make subsidies available for job creation and development projects. The ultimate goal is that projects must eventually be individually sustainable.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic and management sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11074/1.1
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