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Social sciences


Grade 9

Current affairs

Module 14

Unity in africa

Activity 1:

The learner will be able to apply research skills, demonstrate knowledge and understanding of history and interpret aspects of history: unity in africa

[lo 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.2, 2.4, 3.2, 3.3]


Excerpts from articles of the Charter of the Order of African Unity. The OAU was established in 1963


1. The organisation strives to achieve the following objectives:

a) To promote unity among the African and Malagasy States;

b) To coordinate and enhance cooperation to thereby establish better living conditions for its people;

c) To eradicate all forms of colonialism on the African continent; and …


1.No interference in the domestic affairs of any state;

2.Non-violent settlement of disputes, inter alia by means of negotiation, mediation, conciliation or arbitration.

From: Basic Documents and Resolutions (OAU Provisional Secretariat. Addis Ababa. No date).



A moment of silence for the Organisation of African Unity, please. When it was established approximately 40 years ago there was much optimism about the ability of African nations to solve the problems of Africa by themselves. The OAU was not able to realise this and was disbanded by its member states during the past week. It is replaced by the African Union, which has been launched with a new set of rules for managing the progress on the continent. While the OAU was established to fight colonialism, apartheid and foreign interference, the AU will concentrate on human rights, democracy, good governance and development.

Hawthorne, P: All for One; One for All


A description of the Sudanese Civil War

The numbers quoted for this war tell a horrifying tale: two million dead, four million uprooted, and thousands forced into slavery. Sudan is the location of Africa's most enduring and the world's most deadly civil war. More people have died here than in Bosnia, Kosovo, Somalia, Afghanistan, Chechnya and Algeria together.

The civil war broke out in 1955 as a struggle between the country's predominantly Arabic Muslim North and the Black African South, who desired self-government. The southerners, mostly adherents of Christianity and tribal religions, felt that they had long suffered discrimination and that they were deprived of just provision of services.

Patricia Smith: Africa's Longest War , The New York Times (teacher.scholastic.com)


Establishment of the OAU in 1963; little question of unity

It soon became clear that there was little hope for African unity due to the in-fighting and a lack

of trust between member countries.


1. Study Sources A, C and D.

1.1 Explain how the objectives and principles of the OAU that are mentioned in Source A failed to be implemented. Make use of your existing knowledge, together with the sources given above. Supply reasons from the sources.

  • Show how source C and Source D are similar.
  • Study Sources A and C to identify the principles of the OAU in Source A that were nullified by what is recorded in Source D.

2. Study Sources A and B.

2.1 What reasons can be derived from Source B to explain the failure of the OAU? Use your existing knowledge with evidence from the Sources.

2.2 Which new role is envisaged for the African Union, according to Source B? What do you think of the new approach of the African Union? Do you expect It to meet with greater success?

2.3 What are the political aspects, according to Source B, on which the OAU concentrated strongly?


Learning outcomes (LOs)

LO 1

Historical investigation

The learner is able to use research skills to investigate both the present and the past.

Assessment standards (ASs)

We know this when the learner:

1.1 investigates a topic by asking key questions and identifies a variety of relevant sources to explore this topic [finding sources];

1.2 asks significant questions to evaluate the sources (e.g. to identify bias and stereotypes, omissions and gaps) [working with to sources];

1.3 analyses the information in sources [working with sources];

1.4 presents an independent line of argument in answering questions posed, and justifies (using evidence) the conclusions reached [answering the question];

1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources; uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicating the answer].

LO 2

Knowledge and Understanding of History

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of history.

We know this when the learner:

2.1 places events, people and changes in the periods of history studied within chronological framework [chronology and time];

2.2 identifies categories of cause and effect (e.g. immediate and long-term, direct and indirect) [cause and effect];

2.3 explains and analyses the reasons for and results of events in history [cause and effect];

2.4 recognises that change and development does not always mean progress [change and continuity].

LO 3

Interpretation of History

The learner is able to interpret aspects of history.

We know this when the learner:

3.1 understands the contested nature of content, and that historians construct histories when writing about events from the past [source interpretation];

3.2 constructs an interpretation based on sources, giving reasons for own interpretation [source interpretation];

3.3 analyses issues which influence the way history has been written [influences on interpretation];

3.4 explains the ways in which symbols are used to remember events and people from the past, and how oral histories can contribute to our understanding of the symbols [representation of the past].

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11063/1.1
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