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Social sciences


Grade 9

Current affairs

Module 14

Unity in africa

Activity 1:

The learner will be able to apply research skills, demonstrate knowledge and understanding of history and interpret aspects of history: unity in africa

[lo 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.2, 2.4, 3.2, 3.3]


Excerpts from articles of the Charter of the Order of African Unity. The OAU was established in 1963


1. The organisation strives to achieve the following objectives:

a) To promote unity among the African and Malagasy States;

b) To coordinate and enhance cooperation to thereby establish better living conditions for its people;

c) To eradicate all forms of colonialism on the African continent; and …


1.No interference in the domestic affairs of any state;

2.Non-violent settlement of disputes, inter alia by means of negotiation, mediation, conciliation or arbitration.

From: Basic Documents and Resolutions (OAU Provisional Secretariat. Addis Ababa. No date).



A moment of silence for the Organisation of African Unity, please. When it was established approximately 40 years ago there was much optimism about the ability of African nations to solve the problems of Africa by themselves. The OAU was not able to realise this and was disbanded by its member states during the past week. It is replaced by the African Union, which has been launched with a new set of rules for managing the progress on the continent. While the OAU was established to fight colonialism, apartheid and foreign interference, the AU will concentrate on human rights, democracy, good governance and development.

Hawthorne, P: All for One; One for All


A description of the Sudanese Civil War

The numbers quoted for this war tell a horrifying tale: two million dead, four million uprooted, and thousands forced into slavery. Sudan is the location of Africa's most enduring and the world's most deadly civil war. More people have died here than in Bosnia, Kosovo, Somalia, Afghanistan, Chechnya and Algeria together.

The civil war broke out in 1955 as a struggle between the country's predominantly Arabic Muslim North and the Black African South, who desired self-government. The southerners, mostly adherents of Christianity and tribal religions, felt that they had long suffered discrimination and that they were deprived of just provision of services.

Patricia Smith: Africa's Longest War , The New York Times (teacher.scholastic.com)


Establishment of the OAU in 1963; little question of unity

It soon became clear that there was little hope for African unity due to the in-fighting and a lack

of trust between member countries.


1. Study Sources A, C and D.

1.1 Explain how the objectives and principles of the OAU that are mentioned in Source A failed to be implemented. Make use of your existing knowledge, together with the sources given above. Supply reasons from the sources.

  • Show how source C and Source D are similar.
  • Study Sources A and C to identify the principles of the OAU in Source A that were nullified by what is recorded in Source D.

2. Study Sources A and B.

2.1 What reasons can be derived from Source B to explain the failure of the OAU? Use your existing knowledge with evidence from the Sources.

2.2 Which new role is envisaged for the African Union, according to Source B? What do you think of the new approach of the African Union? Do you expect It to meet with greater success?

2.3 What are the political aspects, according to Source B, on which the OAU concentrated strongly?


Learning outcomes (LOs)

LO 1

Historical investigation

The learner is able to use research skills to investigate both the present and the past.

Assessment standards (ASs)

We know this when the learner:

1.1 investigates a topic by asking key questions and identifies a variety of relevant sources to explore this topic [finding sources];

1.2 asks significant questions to evaluate the sources (e.g. to identify bias and stereotypes, omissions and gaps) [working with to sources];

1.3 analyses the information in sources [working with sources];

1.4 presents an independent line of argument in answering questions posed, and justifies (using evidence) the conclusions reached [answering the question];

1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources; uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicating the answer].

LO 2

Knowledge and Understanding of History

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of history.

We know this when the learner:

2.1 places events, people and changes in the periods of history studied within chronological framework [chronology and time];

2.2 identifies categories of cause and effect (e.g. immediate and long-term, direct and indirect) [cause and effect];

2.3 explains and analyses the reasons for and results of events in history [cause and effect];

2.4 recognises that change and development does not always mean progress [change and continuity].

LO 3

Interpretation of History

The learner is able to interpret aspects of history.

We know this when the learner:

3.1 understands the contested nature of content, and that historians construct histories when writing about events from the past [source interpretation];

3.2 constructs an interpretation based on sources, giving reasons for own interpretation [source interpretation];

3.3 analyses issues which influence the way history has been written [influences on interpretation];

3.4 explains the ways in which symbols are used to remember events and people from the past, and how oral histories can contribute to our understanding of the symbols [representation of the past].

Questions & Answers

a body is projected vertically upward of 30kmp/h how long will it take to reach a point 0.5km bellow e point of projection
Abu Reply
i have to say. who cares. lol. why know that t all
is this just a chat app about the openstax book?
Lord Reply
kya ye b.sc ka hai agar haa to konsa part
MPL Reply
what is charge quantization
Mayowa Reply
it means that the total charge of a body will always be the integral multiples of basic unit charge ( e ) q = ne n : no of electrons or protons e : basic unit charge 1e = 1.602×10^-19
is the time quantized ? how ?
What do you meanby the statement,"Is the time quantized"
Can you give an explanation.
there are some comment on the time -quantized..
time is integer of the planck time, discrete..
planck time is travel in planck lenght of light..
it's says that charges does not occur in continuous form rather they are integral multiple of the elementary charge of an electron.
it is just like bohr's theory. Which was angular momentum of electron is intral multiple of h/2π
determine absolute zero
The properties of a system during a reversible constant pressure non-flow process at P= 1.6bar, changes from constant volume of 0.3m³/kg at 20°C to a volume of 0.55m³/kg at 260°C. its constant pressure process is 3.205KJ/kg°C Determine: 1. Heat added, Work done, Change in Internal Energy and Change in Enthalpy
Opeyemi Reply
U can easily calculate work done by 2.303log(v2/v1)
Amount of heat added through q=ncv^delta t
Change in internal energy through q=Q-w
please how do dey get 5/9 in the conversion of Celsius and Fahrenheit
Gwam Reply
what is copper loss
timileyin Reply
this is the energy dissipated(usually in the form of heat energy) in conductors such as wires and coils due to the flow of current against the resistance of the material used in winding the coil.
it is the work done in moving a charge to a point from infinity against electric field
Ashok Reply
what is the weight of the earth in space
peterpaul Reply
As w=mg where m is mass and g is gravitational force... Now if we consider the earth is in gravitational pull of sun we have to use the value of "g" of sun, so we can find the weight of eaeth in sun with reference to sun...
g is not gravitacional forcé, is acceleration of gravity of earth and is assumed constante. the "sun g" can not be constant and you should use Newton gravity forcé. by the way its not the "weight" the physical quantity that matters, is the mass
Yeah got it... Earth and moon have specific value of g... But in case of sun ☀ it is just a huge sphere of gas...
Thats why it can't have a constant value of g ....
not true. you must know Newton gravity Law . even a cloud of gas it has mass thats al matters. and the distsnce from the center of mass of the cloud and the center of the mass of the earth
please why is the first law of thermodynamics greater than the second
Ifeoma Reply
every law is important, but first law is conservation of energy, this state is the basic in physics, in this case first law is more important than other laws..
First Law describes o energy is changed from one form to another but not destroyed, but that second Law talk about entropy of a system increasing gradually
first law describes not destroyer energy to changed the form, but second law describes the fluid drection that is entropy. in this case first law is more basic accorging to me...
define electric image.obtain expression for electric intensity at any point on earthed conducting infinite plane due to a point charge Q placed at a distance D from it.
Mateshwar Reply
explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe Reply
pls. explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
does your app come with video lessons?
Ahmed Reply
What is vector
Ajibola Reply
Vector is a quantity having a direction as well as magnitude
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11063/1.1
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