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Natural sciences

Grade 8

Matter: classification

Module 22

Separation of mixtures

  • Different methods of separation are used for different mixtures.

The educator will explain and may demonstratethe METHODS that are listed:

  • Sorting by hand – sort according to size, form and colour
  • Filtration – one of the substances is soluble
  • Evaporation – dissolves in water and water evaporates leaving salts behind
  • Separating funnel – two liquids with different densities
  • Distillation – use a Liebig condenser to heat, evaporate and condense


Sketch of filtration and distillation apparatus and a separating funnel.

Activity: select a method of separation

Select and write down a method of separation for the following mixtures:

Sand and salt

Beans and peanuts

Squash syrup and water

Oil and water

Different coins


Give a step by step explanation with sketches of the method you would follow to:

a) separate sand from salt.

b) separate squash syrup from water.

1. Which method would you use to obtain fresh water from sea water?

2. Why is this method not used to add to fresh water sources?

3. What is the difference between a distillate and a filtrate?

4. Explain what fractional distillation is and name two industries in which it is used.


How would you separate water and alcohol?

  • Also find out something about fractional distillation .
  • Suggestion: use what you have found out about the boiling point of substances (learning unit 3).
  • Sketches form an important part of a project !
  • Submit the project on the date set by the educator.

Assessment of the project

Were you able to plan the project (AS 1.1), collect data (AS 1.2) and evaluate and communicate your findings (AS 1.3), as well as apply knowledge (AS 2.4)?

[LO 1.1; LO 1.2; LO 1.3; LO 2.4]


Learning outcome 1: Scientific investigations

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

ASSESSMENT STANDARDS: We know this when the learner

1.1 is able to plan investigations;

1.2 is able to execute an investigation and collect data;

  • is able to evaluate data and communicate findings

Learning outcomes 2: Constructing science knowledge

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD: We know this when the learner

2.4 is able to apply knowledge.


Mixture Method

Sand&salt Filter

Beans&peanuts Manual sorting

Squash syrup&water Distillation

Oil&water Separating funnel

Different coins Manual sorting

Sketches – the correct apparatus

  1. Distillation
  2. Cost
  3. Distillate – fluid condenses after distillation
  4. filtrate – fluid that is filtered
  5. filtering at different boiling points, e.g. at oil refineries and in the spirtis (alcohol) idustry.


Alcohol boils at 79ºC – fractional distillation removes alcohol; water is left behind.

Regulation of temperature, using a thermometer is very important.

Sketch of how the Lieg condenser is set up is important.

Questions & Answers

anyone have book of Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf book in pdf Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis
Naeem Reply
what happen with The nano material on The deep space.?
pedro Reply
It could change the whole space science.
the characteristics of nano materials can be studied by solving which equation?
sibaram Reply
plz answer fast
synthesis of nano materials by chemical reaction taking place in aqueous solvents under high temperature and pressure is call?
hydrothermal synthesis
how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
How we are making nano material?
Some times this process occur naturally. if not, nano engineers build nano materials. they have different physical and chemical properties.
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
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