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Natural sciences

Grade 8

Energy: electricity, heat and light

Module 4

Electricity

One of the forms of energy mentioned above is ELECTRICITY.

Electricity is an invisible form of energy that is related to the movement of very small particles. To understand this, one needs to understand the structure of an atom.

  • An atom is the smallest particle that any substance consists of. It comprises a nucleus of particles known as protons (positive) and neutrons (neutral), as well as a surrounding cloud of negative particles – electrons . The electrons move in an electric circuit.
  • In a neutral atom, the positive and negative particles are in balance.

Activity:

To make a drawing of the structure of an atom [lo 2.1, lo 2.3]

Assignment 1:

Ask your educator to explain the typical structure of an atom to you and then draw your own representation of it.

Assessment of the Sketch of an Atom

Were you able to draw the atom clearly.

[LO 1.2; LO 1.3]

The positive and negative particles in a neutral atom are usually in balance.

Activity:

To understand the concept of potential difference

[lo 2.1, lo 2.3, lo 2.4]

  • When an imbalance occurs, the negative electrons are set in motion.
  • Electricity can be conducted for great distances along wires. This energy can be converted to other forms of energy, like light, heat and movement by means of an appliance connected to the wires.
  • The electrons are not able to move by themselves but are pushed by the electric transfer that occurs. This “pushing” is known as the POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE (Pd).
  • This potential difference is usually produced by a power station or a battery. Inside the wiring, electrons will jump from one atom to another, like wagons of a freight train bumping against each other when force is applied at one end – it causes an impact that is transferred all along the wiring.

Assignment 1: Questions:

What is potential difference?

Find out what direct current is. Where is it used?

Assessment of Potential Difference

Were you able to answer the questions correctly?

[LO 2.1; LO 2.4]

Did you know?

  • There is a mild but similar electric current in the human body. It moves along the nerves in the form of pulses.
  • The machine that is able to detect and record this current is an EEG, (an electroencephalograph).
  • During an investigation with an electroencephalograph, electrodes with sensors are attached to the body.

Assessment

Learning outcomes(Los)

LO 1

Scientific Investigations

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

Assessment Standards(Ass)

This is evident when the learner:

1.1 plans investigations;

1.2 conducts investigations and collects data;

1.3 evaluates data and communicates findings.

LO 2

Constructing Science Knowledge

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

Assessment Standards(ASs)

This is evident when the learner:

2.1 recalls meaningful information;

2.2 categorises information;

2.3 interprets information;

2.4 applies knowledge.

Memorandum

Assignment 1:

One of the listed forms of energy is ELECTRICITY.

  • Electricity is an invisible form of energy that is based on the movement of very small particles. To understand this, one needs to understand the structure of an atom.
  • An atom represents the smallest particle that any substance consists of. It comprises a small nucleus of particles known as protons (positive) and neutrons (neutral), as well as a surrounding cloud of small negative particles – electrons . It is the electrons that move in the electric circuit.
  • In a neutral atom, the positive and negative particles are usually in balance.
  • When an imbalance is created, the negative electrons come into motion.n°
  • Electricity is the movement of energy along long lengths of copper wire and this energy can be converted to other forms of energy such as light, warmth and movement by means of any appliance connected to it.
  • The electrons cannot move by themselves; they are actually pushed forwards in the electric condition.
  • This “pressure” is known as the POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE (Pd).

éééé

The potential difference is usually produced by a power station or a battery.

  • In the wiring, electrons will literally bounce from one atom to another like the wagons of a freight train that bump against one another when force is applied at one end – it causes an impact that is transferred all along the wiring.

Do you know?

  • There is a mild but similar electric current in the human body, which moves along the nerves and muscles in the form of nerve and muscle pulses.
  • The machine that is able to pick up and record this is an EEG, an electroencephalograph. During such an investigation, electrodes with sensors that take readings are attached to the body.
  • Another application involves a pacemaker, which maintains the electrical impulses of the muscle tissue of the heart and supplements any inadequacy.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
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